The Days On Which Fasting Is Discouraged

1) Fasting on Friday alone except if one observes fast a day before or a day after it:

Hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) that he said: “I heard the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) say, ‘None of you should fast on a Friday unless he fasts the day before or the day after.’”[1]

It was narrated from Juwayriyah bint al-Haarith (may Allaah be pleased with her) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) entered upon her on a Friday when she was fasting. He asked her, “Did you fast yesterday?” She said, “No.” He asked, “Are you going to fast tomorrow?” She said, “No.” He said, “Then break your fast.” Hammaad ibn al-Ja’d said, “I heard Qataadah say, Abu Ayyub told me that Juwayriyah spoke to him and he told her to stop her fast and she did so.”[2]

2) Fasting on Saturday alone, except when it is making up for a day of obligatory fasting:

From ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Busr as-Salami, from his sister, that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Do not fast on Saturdays apart from days when you are obliged to fast. If any one of you cannot find anything other than grape stalks or the twigs of a tree, let him chew it (to make sure that he is not fasting).”[3]

 4)  It is not permissible to fast after halfway through Sha’baan except for those who have a habitual pattern of fasting:

Narrated from Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “When Sha’baan is half over, do not fast.”[4]

5) Fasting the day of Doubt:

Ammar ibn Yaasir said: “Whoever fasts on the day concerning which there is doubt has disobeyed Abu’l-Qaasim (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him).”[5]

 6) Fasting the entire year, even if one breaks the fast during the prohibited days:

Abdullah ibn Amr said, “The Messenger of Allah said to me. “O Abdullah ibn Amr, you fast perpetually and pray the whole night. If you (continue to) do that, your eyes will become weak and you will become weak. There is no fast for the one who fasts perpetually.”[6]

Abu Qatadah narrated that a man came to the Prophet and said, “O Messenger of Allah, how do you fast?” the Messenger of Allah became upset at his question. When Umar saw that, he said, “We are pleased with Allah as Lord, with Islam as religion and with Muhammed as a Prophet. We seek refuge in Allah from the anger of Allah and from the anger of His Messenger.” Umar continued to repeat that until the Messenger of Allah’s anger left. He then said, “O Messenger of Allah, what is the state of the one who fasts the entire year?” he replied, “He neither fasted nor did he break his fast.”[7]

 

References:

[1] Recorded by Bukhari and Muslim

[2] Recorded by Bukhari

[3] Recorded by al-Tirmizi, Abu Dawood and Ibn Majah. Imam Tirmizi said: ‘This is a Hasan hadeeth’.

[4] Recorded by Abu Dawood, al-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah. Hadith Sahih by albani

[5] Recorded by Tirmizi and graded Sahih by albani.

[6] Recorded by Bukhari and Muslim

[7] Recorded by Muslim, Abu Dawood and Nasa’i

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