Fiqh Series: Book of Fasting From the book ‘Ad-Durar Al-Bahiyah Fi Masaa’il Al-Fiqhiyyah’ of Imam Shawkani (Fully Referenced)

Book of Fasting

Fasting Ramadan becomes obligatory once its crescent is seen by a trustworthy (Muslim) individual[1]; otherwise, Sha’ban must be completed[2].

One is to fast thirty days unless the crescent of Shawwal is seen before Ramadan is completed. If the inhabitants of certain area (i.e. country, city, town, village… etc.) see the crescent of Ramadan, then fast the month, other areas must also do the same. The one who fasts must determine intention prior to Fajr.

Chapter 1: Fasting Nullifiers

The following nullify fasting:

1)    Eating[3]

2)    Drinking[4]

3)    Sexual intercourse[5]

4)    Deliberately Vomiting[6]

Wisal fasting (i.e. to fast more than one day continuously) is forbidden. One who deliberately nullifies his fasting, must expiate. It is preferred to hasten Futoor (breakfast) and delay Suhhoor (late dinner).

Section: Rules on making up missed fasts

One who breaks his fast due to a legitimate reason must make it up.

Breaking the fast for the one on a journey or the like of him is permitted, for one who fears weakness or harm in battle: for them breaking the fasting becomes a must.

As for one who dies before completing fasting, his guardian must take over the fasting[7]. Both the unable and the old who can neither perform nor make up for fasting are to expiate by feeding a needy for each day. As for one who is fasting voluntarily he is the master of himself, there is neither making up nor expiation.

Chapter 2: Supererogatory Fasting

It is recommended to fast:

1)    Six days from Shawwal[8]

2)    The nine of Dhul-Hijjah[9]

It is recommended also to fast the Month of Muharram[10], Sha’ban[11], Mondays and Thursdays[12], the bright days (13th, 14th and 15th of every lunar month)[13].

The best of supererogatory fasting is to fast every other day[14]. Yet, it is disliked to fast The Dahr (i.e. fasting for very long period of time or fasting every day)[15]. It is also disliked to dedicate Fridays[16] and Saturdays[17] to fasting.

It is forbidden to (fast on the following days):

1)    Fast the two Eids[18]

2)    The days of Tashreeq (i.e. three days after the Day of Sacrifice in Hajj)[19]

3)    Fast one or two days prior to Ramadan[20].

Chapter 3: I’tikaf (Seclusion for Worship in a Mosque)

It is legitimized for a fasting person at any time in the mosques. It is legitimately more confirmed in Ramadan, especially in the last ten days and it is recommended to make every effort for doing righteous good deeds in these days and to stand for prayer in the nights of Al-Qadr[21]. One who is performing I’tikaf should not go out for anything unless very necessary for him.

 

References: 

[1] Sahih: Ibn ‘Umar said: “The people were looking for the new moon and when I reported to the Messenger of Allah that I had seen it, he fasted and ordered the people to fast.”  Recorded by Abu Dawud, al-Hakim, and Ibn Hibban who declared it to be sahih.

[2] Sahih: Abu Hurairah narrated that the Prophet said, “Fast due to its sighting and break your fast due to its sighting. If it is obscured to you, then reckon the month to be thirty days.”  Recorded by Muslim this is his wording and also found in Bukhari and Nasa’i.

[3] Sahih: Abu Hurairah narrated that the Prophet said, “Whoever forgets while he is fasting and eats or drinks something should complete his fast, for it was Allah who fed him or gave him to drink.” Recorded by Muslim, Bukhari ibn Majah and Tirmizi. This is the wording of Sahih Muslim.

[4] Sahih: Abu Hurairah narrated that the Prophet said, “Whoever forgets while he is fasting and eats or drinks something should complete his fast, for it was Allah who fed him or gave him to drink.” Recorded by Muslim, Bukhari ibn Majah and Tirmizi. This is the wording of Sahih Muslim.

[5] Sahih: Narrated by Abu Hurairah:  While we were sitting with the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم a man came and said, “O Allah’s Apostle! I have been ruined.” Allah’s Apostle asked what the matter with him was. He replied, “I had sexual intercourse with my wife while I was fasting.” Allah’s Apostle asked him, “Can you afford to manumit a slave?” He replied in the negative. Allah’s Apostle asked him, “Can you fast for two successive months?” He replied in the negative. The Prophet asked him, “Can you afford to feed sixty poor persons?” He replied in the negative. The Prophet kept silent and while we were in that state, a big basket full of dates was brought to the Prophet. He asked, “Where is the questioner?” He replied, “I (am here).” The Prophet said (to him), “Take this (basket of dates) and give it in charity.” The man said, “Should I give it to a person poorer than I? By Allah; there is no family between its (i.e. Medina’s) two mountains who are poorer than I.” The Prophet smiled till his pre-molar teeth became visible and then said, ‘Feed your family with it.’”Recorded by Bukhari

[6] Sahih: Narrated Abu Hurayrah: The Prophet said: if one has a sudden attack of vomiting while one is fasting, no expiation is required of him, but if he vomits intentionally he must make expiation. Recorded by Abu Dawud graded Sahih by sheikh albani

[7] Sahih: Narrated by Ibn `Abbas: A man came to the Prophet (SallAllaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) and said, “O Allah’s Apostle! My mother died and she ought to have fasted one month (for her missed Ramadan). Shall I fast on her behalf?” The Prophet said, “Would you not pay the debt if your mother had died (without paying it)?” He said, “Yes.” Then the Prophet said, “Allah’s debts have more right to be paid.”

In another variation – Narrated Ibn `Abbas: A woman said to the Prophet, “My mother died and she had vowed to fast but she didn’t fast. Shall I fast on her behalf?” The Prophet replied, “You know that if your mother had died in debt, would it not have been paid on her behalf?” She said, “Yes.” Then the Prophet said, “So fast on behalf of your mother.”

[8] Sahih: Abu Ayyub al-Ansari (Allah be pleased with him) relates that the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace be upon him, his family, and companions) said, “Whoever fasts Ramadan and follows it with six days from Shawwal it is as if they fasted the entire year.” Recorded by Muslim, Tirmizi, Abu Dawud and ibn Majah

[9] Sahih: Hunaydah ibn Khalid reported from his wife that some of the wives of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to fast the (first) nine days of Dhu’l-Hijjah, on the day of ‘Ashoora’, on three days of each month, and on the first two Mondays and Thursdays of each month.” Recorded by al-Nasa’i, and by Abu Dawud; graded Sahih by al-Albani in Sahih Abi Dawud

[10] Sahih: Abu Hurairah reported: “I asked the Prophet: “Which prayer is best after the obligatory prayers?” He said: “Prayer during the middle of the night.” I asked: “Which fast is best after the fast of Ramadhan?” He said: “Fasting during the month of Muharram.” Recorded by Muslim

[11] Sahih: A’ishah said: “I have never seen the Messenger of Allah, Sallallahu alayhi wa salam, completing the fast of a month as he did for Ramadhan, and I have never seen him fasting so much as he would in Sha’ban.” Recorded by Bukhari and Muslim

[12] Sahih: `A’ishah said: The Messenger of Allah, SallAllaahu alayhi wa salam, used to fast Mondays and Thursdays.Recorded by Tirmizi who said the Hadith is Hasan

[13] Sahih: Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: My friend (the Messenger of Allah) (SallAllaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) directed me to observe fast for three days in every month, to perform two Rak`ah (optional) Duha prayer at forenoon and to perform the Witr prayer before going to bed. Recorded in  Bukhari and Muslim

Abdullah bin `Amr bin Al-`As (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: The Messenger of Allah (SallAllaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “Observing Saum (fasting) on three days of every month is equivalent to a full month’s fasting.” Recorded in  Bukhari and Muslim

[14] Sahih: Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Amr (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The best fasting is the fast of Dawood: he used to fast one day and not the next.” Recorded by Bukhari and Muslim

[15] Sahih: Abdullah ibn Amr said, “The Messenger of Allah said to me. “O Abdullah ibn Amr, you fast perpetually and pray the whole night. If you (continue to) do that, your eyes will become weak and you will become weak. There is no fast for the one who fasts perpetually.”Recorded by Bukhari and Muslim

Sahih: Abu Qatadah narrated that a man came to the Prophet and said, “O Messenger of Allah, how do you fast?” the Messenger of Allah became upset at his question. When Umar saw that, he said, “We are pleased with Allah as Lord, with Islam as religion and with Muhammed as a Prophet. We seek refuge in Allah from the anger of Allah and from the anger of His Messenger.” Umar continued to repeat that until the Messenger of Allah’s anger left. He then said, “O Messenger of Allah, what is the state of the one who fasts the entire year?” he replied, “He neither fasted nor did he break his fast.” Recorded by Muslim, Abu Dawood and Nasa’i

[16] Sahih: Hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) that he said: “I heard the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) say, ‘None of you should fast on a Friday unless he fasts the day before or the day after.’” Recorded by Bukhari and Muslim

Sahih: It was narrated from Juwayriyah bint al-Haarith (may Allaah be pleased with her) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) entered upon her on a Friday when she was fasting. He asked her, “Did you fast yesterday?” She said, “No.” He asked, “Are you going to fast tomorrow?” She said, “No.” He said, “Then break your fast.” Hammaad ibn al-Ja’d said, “I heard Qataadah say, Abu Ayyub told me that Juwayriyah spoke to him and he told her to stop her fast and she did so.” Recorded by Bukhari

[17] Sahih: From ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Busr as-Salami, from his sister, that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Do not fast on Saturdays apart from days when you are obliged to fast. If any one of you cannot find anything other than grape stalks or the twigs of a tree, let him chew it (to make sure that he is not fasting).”

[18] Sahih: Abu Ubayd, he ex-slave of ibn Azhar, said, “I performed the Eid prayer with Umar ibn Khattab and he said, ‘The Messenger of Allah forbade fasting on these two days: The day you break your fast after your fasting and the day on which you eat from your sacrifice.”Recorded by Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawood, Tirmizi and Ibn Majah

Sahih: The hadeeth of Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri (may Allaah be pleased with him) who said: “The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) forbade fasting on the day of (Eid) al-Fitr and an-Nahr.”Recorded by Bukhari and Muslim

[19] Sahih: Narrated from Abu Murrah the freed slave of Umm Hani that he entered with ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Amr upon his father ‘Amr ibn al-‘Aas. He offered them food and said, “Eat.” He said, “I am fasting.” ‘Amr said: “Eat, for these are the days on which the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) would tell us not to fast and forbade us to fast, and these are the days of al-Tashreeq.” Recorded by Abu Dawud. Graded Sahih by sheikh albani.

[20] Sahih: From Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) who said: He (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Do not pre-empt Ramadan by fasting a day or two before it, except for a man fasting his usual fast – then let him fast it.” Recorded by Muslim

[21] Sahih: Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allaah said: “Whoever performs the night prayer on the night of Al-Qadr with Iman (firm belief) and seeking reward will have all his past sins forgiven.” Recorded by Bukhari

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