Fiqh Series: Voluntary / Supererogatory Prayers – From the book ‘Ad-Durar Al-Bahiyah Fi Masaa’il Al-Fiqhiyyah’ of Imam Shawkani

Chapter: Supererogatory Prayers

Supererogatory prayers are:

  1. Four before Dhuhr prayer and four after it[1]
  2. Four before the Asr prayer[2]
  3. Two rak’ah after Maghrib prayer, two rak’ah after Isha prayer and two rak’ah before fajr prayer
  4. Prayer of Duha[3]
  5. Night prayer and its Rak’ah are 13 at most[4], conclude with an odd-numbered Rak’ah (one rak’ah)
  6. The prayer upon entering the Masjid[5]
  7. The prayer for guidance (Istikharah Prayer)[6]
  8. The two rak’ahs between the call for prayer (Adhan) and the call to stand for the prayer (Iqaamah)[7]

References: 

[1] Sahih: Umm Habibah (may Allah be pleased with her) said: Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “Whoever prays four before Dhuhr and four after it, Allah makes him prohibited for the fire.” Recorded in Sunan Abu Dawud, Sunan At-Tirmizi, Sunan An-Nasa’i and Sunan Ibn Majah. Shaykh albani graded this hadeeth as being Sahih in his checking in Sunan At-Tirmizi.

[2] Hasan: Ibn Umar narrated that the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi was sallam) said: “May Allah have mercy upon a man who prays four before Al-Asr.” Recorded in Sunan Tirmizi and he graded it himself Hasan Ghareeb.

[3] Sahih: A’ishah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported: The Messenger of Allah (SallAllaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) used to perform four Rak`ah of Duha prayer (at the forenoon) and would add to them whatever Allah wished. Recorded in Sahih Muslim

[4] Sahih: Narrated Ibn Abbas: ‘The prayer of the Prophet used to be of thirteen Rakat, i.e. of the night prayer’. Recorded in Sahih Bukhari

[5] Sahih: Abu Qatadah (May Allah be pleased with him)reported: The Messenger of Allah (SallAllaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “When anyone of you enters the mosque, he should perform two Rak`ah (of voluntary prayer) before sitting.” Recorded in Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim

[6] Sahih: Jabir bin Abdullah (RadhiAllaahu anhu) said the Messenger of Allaah (SallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) used to teach us al-Istikharah (a prayer said for seeking blessings in carrying out a decision) for all matters, just like he used to teach us a chapter from the Qur’an, he would say: If any of you intends to undertake a matter then he should pray two Rakah other than an obligatory prayer then he should sayO Allaah I request of You with Your knowledge, and by Your Power I seek capability, and I ask of you of your great favour, since indeed You are the, One who is able while I am not, and You know and I do not, and You are the, One who knows the unseen. O Allaah if You know that this matter – here he mentions his need – is good for me in this world and for my living and for the matters of my Hereafter – or he said, for my affairs now and the future – then decree it for me and make it easy for me and bless it for me. And if You know that this matter is evil for me in this world and for my life and for the matters of my Hereafter – or he said, for my affairs now and the affairs of my future – then turn it away from me and turn me away from it, and decree goodness for me where ever it may be and make me pleased with it. Recorded in Sahih Bukhari

[7] Sahih: Narrated ‘Abdullah bin Mughaffal Al-Muzani: Allah’s Messenger said thrice, “There is a prayer between the two Adhans (Adhan and Iqaamah),” and added, “For the one who wants to pray.” Recorded in Sahih Bukhari

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