Fiqh Series: Authentic Narrations and Rulings on Combining Prayers

Combining Prayers

  • According to certain reasons one is allowed to combine Zhur with Asr and Maghrib with Isha.
  • Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah said: “The specific reason for shortening the prayers is travelling, and it is not permissible to shorten prayers when not travelling. With regard to joining prayers, the reason for it is if there is a need or an excuse. So if a person needs to do so, he may join prayers whilst travelling, whether he is travelling a long distance or a short one, and he may join prayers because of rain etc., or because of sickness etc., or for any other reason, because the point is to spare the Muslims any difficulty or hardship.”

Ibn Taymiyyah in Majmoo’ al-Fataawa, 22/293

The causes for combining prayers:

1) Travelling:

Narrated Anas bin Malik: Whenever the Prophet (ﷺ) started the journey before noon, he used to delay the Zuhr prayer till the time for the `Asr prayer and then he would dismount and pray them together; and whenever the sun declined before he started the journey he used to offer the Zuhr prayer and then ride (for the journey).

Recorded by Bukhari

2) Rain (combining due to rain should only take place in the masjid, not when at home):

Nafi said, “When the governors would combine the Maghrib and Isha prayers due to rain, Abdullah ibn Umar would combine them with them.” Hisham ibn Urwah stated, “His father Urwah, Sa’eed ibn al-Musayyab and Abu Bakr ibn Abdur Rahman ibn al-Harith ibn Hisham ibn al-Mugheerah al-Makhzoomi used to combine the Maghrib and Isha prayers on rainy nights if the people would combine those prayers and they did not object to that.”

Recorded by Malik in hi Muwatta. Graded Sahih by sheikh albani

 

3) Due to some temporary need that arises and on a random basis:

Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas: The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) combined the noon and afternoon prayers, and the sunset and night prayers at Medina without any danger and rain. He was asked: What did he intend by it? He replied: He intended that his community might not fall into hardship.

Recorded by Abu Dawud. Graded Sahih by sheikh albani

Ibn ‘Abbas reported that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) combined the noon prayer with the afternoon prayer and the sunset prayer with the ‘Isha’ prayer in Medina without being in a state of danger or rainfall. And in the hadith transmitted by Waki’ (the words are):”I said to Ibn ‘Abbas: What prompted him to do that? He said: So that his (Prophet’s) Ummah should not be put to (unnecessary) hardship.” And in the hadith transmitted by Mu’awiyah (the words are):” It was said to Ibn ‘Abbas: What did he intend thereby? He said he wanted that his Ummah should not be put to unnecessary hardship.”

Recorded in Muslim

Ibn ‘Abbas reported: The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) observed the noon and afternoon prayers together in Medina without being in a state of fear or in a state of journey. (Abu Zubair said: I asked Sa’id [one of the narrators] why he did that. He said: I asked Ibn ‘Abbas as you have asked me, and he replied that he [the Prophet] wanted that no one among his Ummah should be put to [unnecessary] hardship.)

Recorded in Muslim

Also as long one does not make it a habit. Like for example when:
– In fear
– Due to sickness
– Severe winds

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