Ad-Durur Al-Bahiyah fi Masaa’il Al-Fiqhiyyah (The Crystalline Gems Of Islamic Jurisprudence) by Imam Shawkani (Kitab Tahara Translated – Ch 1 to Ch 4)
Chapter 1: Water
- First, water is pure and as a Purifier. Water does not relinquish either of these two characteristics (purity and ability to purify) unless:
- Its scent
- colour or
- Taste is altered as a result of an addition of Najasah (Impurities).
- (Secondly, if) there is an addition of a Tahir (clean, pure) substance that is added to it (water) rendering it to be unrecognized as (pure) water and (therefore) it is no longer correct to give it the term water.
In regards (i.e. water as a purifier) there is no difference between:
- A little and a lot of water
- Water that exceeds the capacity of two pots, Qullatyn (roughly 190 litres of water) and what is less than that
- Running and Stagnant water
- Used and Unused water
Chapter 2: Impurities
Impurities consist of:
- The excrement and urine of Human beings. Except the urine of a young male child.
- Dog saliva
- Faeces and Manure
- Menstrual Blood
- The flesh of swine
Other than these (above mentioned) there is disagreement (amongst the scholars as to there degree of impurity).
So water is pure. Thus, if something does not change its purity or if it is not mixed with impure substances, we should always assume the water is pure.
Chapter 3: Purifying Impurities
Impurities are to be cleansed by being washed. (It is to be washed thoroughly) until there is no trace, colour, smell or taste of the impurity remaining. Shoes are to be cleansed by dragging and wiping them upon the ground.
That which cannot be washed (due to its physical dimensions i.e. the ground), water is to be poured upon it (in sufficient amounts to clean it of the impurity) or it is to be removed until no trace of the Najaasah remains.
Water is the primary cleansing tool that is to be used when purifying and cleansing. Nothing can be used (by itself) in its place unless there is an explicit permission alluding to this granted from the Lawgiver (Allah).
Chapter 4: Answering the Call of Nature
When relieving oneself one must:
- Conceal oneself till one is close (to the ground or floor)
- Maintain a distance or relieve oneself in a closed toilet
- Cease talking
- Not carry religious items
- Avoid places where the act of relieving oneself is forbidden by the religion or tradition
- Do not face the Qiblah nor turn ones back towards it
- Clean ones private parts using three clean stones or any other substitute object that meets the purpose.
When about to relieve oneself it is recommended (based on the Sunnah, Prophetic tradition) to:
- Seek Allah’s refuge from the devil
- Ask forgiveness (after exiting the place of relieving oneself)
- Give thanks to Allah when finished
 Sahih: Abu Sa’eed Al-Khudri narrated the Messenger of Allah (SallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) said “Water is pure and nothing can make it impure.” Reported in Ahmed, At-Tirmizi, Nasa’i and Abu Dawud. Ahmad graded it Sahih (Authentic).
 Sahih: On the authority of Ibn ‘Umar the Messenger of Allah (SallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) said: “If there is enough water to fill two Qullah (large earthen pots that carry about one hundred Kilograms of water), it can carry no impurity.” Another version of the Hadeeth states: “It does not become unclean.” Reported in Sunan At-Tirmizi, An-Nasa’i, Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah reported the hadeeth and it is graded as Saheeh by Al-Hakim.
 Sahih: Abu Hurairah narrates that the Messenger of Allah (SallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) said, “If one of you steps with his sandals into something filthy (al Adha), then dirt is the purification for it.” Reported in Sunan Abu Dawud. Al-Adha – refers to everything that harms someone, such as impure things, filth, rocks and thorns.
 Sahih: Abu As-Samh, the servant of the Messenger of Allah (SallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam), narrated that the Messenger of Allah (SallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) said, “The urine of the baby girl is to be washed while that of the baby boy is to be sprinkled over.” Reported in Sunan Abu Dawood and Sunan Nasa’i. Graded Sahih by sheikh albani in Sahih Sunan Nasa’i no.293
 Sahih: From Abu Hurayrah who said that Messenger of Allah (SallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) said, “When a dog licks one of your vessels (e.g. bowl), apply dirt to it and then wash the vessel seven times.” Reported in Sahih Muslim and Sunan Nasa’i
 Sahih: Abdullah ibn Mas’ud said, “The Messenger of Allah (SallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) went to relieve himself and said, ‘Bring me three stones.’ I brought him two stones and a piece of dung. He took the two stones and discarded the dung, saying, ‘It is filth.’” Reported in Sunan ibn Majah, sheikh albani graded it Sahih in Sahih ibn Majah no.253. Also it is in different wording by Sahih Bukhari and Sunan Tirmizi.
 Sahih: Asma’ bint Abi Bakr stated that a woman came to the Messenger of Allah (SallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) and said, “We get menstrual blood on our clothing, so what should we do?” He replied, “Rub it, then scratch it off with water and then wet it and then (you can) pray in it.” Reported in Bukhari and Muslim. This is the wording in Muslim.
 Sahih: Purification of the bottom of the Sandals – One must wipe against the ground: Abu Sa’eed narrated that the Prophet said, “When one of you comes to the Masjid, he should turn his sandals over and look at them. If he finds any filth on them, he should wipe them on the ground and then pray in them.” Reported in Musnad Ahmed and similar meaning found in narration in Sunan Abu Dawud. Graded Sahih by Shaykh albani in Sahih Sunan Abu Dawud no. 605
 Sahih: Purification of the ground and earth – Narrated by Anas bin Malik: A Bedouin came and passed urine in one corner of the mosque. The people shouted at him but the Prophet (SallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) stopped them until he finished urinating. The Prophet ordered them to spill a bucket of water over that place and they did so. Reported in Sahih Bukhari.
 Sahih: Like purifying the garment which has had menstrual blood on it – Asma’ bint Abi Bakr stated that a woman came to the Prophet (SallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) and said, “We get menstrual blood on our clothing, so what should we do?” he replied, “Rub it, then scratch it off with water and then wet it and then (you can) pray in it.” Reported in Bukhari and Muslim. This is the wording in Muslim.
 Sahih: Jabir said: “We went with the Messenger of Allah (SallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) on a journey and whenever he wished to relieve himself, he would go away until he could not be seen.” Reported in Sunan Ibn Majah and Sunan Abu Dawud. Graded Sahih by sheikh albani in Sahih Ibn Majah no.268
 Sahih: Abu Ayyub Al-Ansari narrated that the Messenger of Allah (SallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) said: “If you go to relieve yourselves, do not face or put your back to the Qiblah upon urinating or defecating. Instead, face the East or the West.” Reported Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim and Sunan Tirmizi.
 Sahih: A’ishah narrated that the Messenger of Allah (SallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) said, “If one of you goes to relieve himself, he should take with him three stones and clean himself with them, as those will suffice him.” Reported in Sunan Nasa’i and Sunan Abu Dawud. Graded Sahih by sheikh albani in Sahih Sunan Nasa’i no.43.
 Sahih: Anas stated, “When the Messenger of Allah (SallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) would enter the place to relieve himself, he would say, ‘O Allah, I seek refuge in you from the male and female devils.” Reported in Bukhari, Muslim, Sunan Abu Dawud, Sunan Ibn Majah, Sunan Tirmizi and Sunan Nasa’i.
 Sahih: A’ishah said, “When the Messenger of Allah (SallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) would leave from the place of relieving oneself he would say, ‘(I seek) Your forgiveness.’” Reported in Sunan Abu Dawud and Sunan Nasa’i. Graded Sahih by sheikh albani in Sahih al-Jami no. 4714.