Ad-Durur Al-Bahiyah fi Masaa’il Al-Fiqhiyyah by Imam Shawkani (Kitab Tahara Translated – Ch 5 to Ch 8)

Ad-Durur Al-Bahiyah fi Masaa’il Al-Fiqhiyyah (The Crystalline Gems Of Islamic Jurisprudence) by Imam Shawkani (Kitab Tahara Translated – Ch 5 to Ch 8: Fully referenced with the ahadith)

Chapter 5: Wudu (Ablution)

It is an obligation upon every Muslim liable (Mukallaf) to the obligations of Islam when performing ablution to:

  • Mention the Name of Allah[1] if one remembers.
  • Rinse your mouth and snuff water.[2]
  • Wash all of the face.[3]
  • Wash the two arms and the elbows.[4]
  • Wipe the head[5] along with the ears[6]. It will do if only some of it is wiped.
  • Wipe over the turban.[7]
  • Wash feet and ankles.[8]
  • Wipe over the shoes (or socks, if wearing any).[9]

Ablution is never valid without the intention to perform it.[10]

 Recommended Actions in the Wudu (Ablution):

When performing ablution, it is recommended that one:

  • Repeat each act of ablution thrice when washing body parts other than the head[11]
  • Lengthen the washing of the face and limbs (i.e. arms and feet)[12]
  • Start with Siwaak or toothbrush[13]
  • Wash the hands to the wrists thrice before washing other parts necessary for ablution.

 

Chapter 6: The Nullification of Wudu (Ablution)

Wudu is nullified when:

  • Waste comes out via the anus from the two outlets or passing gas.[14]
  • An act that demands a full bath (ghusl) is done. (i.e. sexual relations, wet dreams or menstruation)
  • Sleeping by reclining on one side.[15]
  • Eating camel meat.[16]
  • Vomiting (scholars have differed on the grading of the hadith which is used for proof)
  • Touching the penis.[17]

 

Chapter 7: Ritual Bathing (Al-Ghusl)

Ghusl becomes a must for these reasons:

  • When semen discharges[18], even if due to fantasizing.
  • When the circumcision areas of male and female come into contact (in sexual intercourse).[19]
  • Menstruation (i.e. the monthly discharge of blood via the uterus)[20]
  • Postpartum bleeding[21]
  • Nocturnal (wet) dream provided that one sees signs of seminal fluid.[22]
  • Death (i.e. the deceased must be washed)[23]
  • Islam (i.e. when one embraces Islam, he or she must take a full bath)[24]

A Description of the Full Ghusl

The obligatory way of Ghusl is:

  • Pour water over the entire body or immerse oneself in it[25]
  • Also sniff water and to rinse the mouth[26]
  • Beside it is highly recommended to rub whatever can be rubbed
  • To start with the right hand side
  • To give precedence to washing the limbs that are washed in Wudu’ except for the feet[27]
  • The ghusl is not valid unless one has the intention of removing the reason for the bath.

When the ghusl is Recommended

The full bath is legitimately recommended for the following:

  • Salatul Jumu’ah[28]
  • The two ‘Eid Prayers
  • For the one who washes a deceased person[29]
  • For Ihraam[30]
  • For the entrance into Makkah.[31]

Chapter 8: The Dry Ablution at-Tayammum

The lack of water[32] or a danger in using it gives at-Tayammum the same function as wudu and as a ghusl. The areas for the purification with earth are:

One is to wipe these areas once after one patting (of the earth, ground, flour, etc.). For a valid purification one must first intend to do so. The mention of Allah’s name is a must.

The nullifiers of this purification are the same as those of wudu.

 

References:  

[1] Hasan: From Abu Hurayrah who said that the Messenger of Allah (SallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) said, “There is no prayer for the one who does not make wudu’, and there is no wudu’ for the one who does not mention Allah’s name!” This is reported by Ahmad in his Musnad, Abu Dawud, Tirmizi in his Al-’Ilal 1/111, Ibn Majah, Ad-Darqutnee, Ibn As-Sakan and Al-Hakim in his Mustadrak and Al-Bayhaqi in his Sunan Al Kubra. Graded as Hasan by sheikh albani in Sahih al-Tirmizi. However, there is difference of opinion on the grading of this hadith amongst the scholars of hadith.

[2] Sahih: Narrated by Humran (the slave of `Uthman): I saw `Uthman bin `Affan asking for a tumbler of water (and when it was brought) he poured water over his hands and washed them thrice and then put his right hand in the water container and rinsed his mouth, washed his nose by putting water in it and then blowing it out…..’” Reported in Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim.

[3] Sahih: Narrated by Humran (the slave of `Uthman): I saw `Uthman bin `Affan asking for a tumbler of water (and when it was brought) he poured water over ……. Then he washed his face …..’” Reported in Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim.

[4] Sahih: Narrated by Humran (the slave of `Uthman): I saw `Uthman bin `Affan asking for a tumbler of water (and when it was brought) he poured water over …… Then he washed his face and forearms up to the elbows thrice…’” Reported in Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim.

[5] Sahih: Narrated by Humran (the slave of `Uthman): I saw `Uthman bin `Affan asking for a tumbler of water (and when it was brought) he poured water over ….. Passed his wet hands over his head …..’” Reported in Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim.

[6] Sahih: Abd-Allah ibn Zayd (may Allah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allah (SallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) said: “The ears are part of the head.” Reported in Sunan Ibn Majah. Graded Sahih by sheikh albani in Sahih ibn Majah no.357. Imam Al-Shawkani writes in al-Sayl al-Jarrâr 1/85: “It is related by chains of transmission going back to eight Companions. Some of the chains of transmission have objections that can be raised about them. However, these chains of transmission strengthen one another so that the hadith is acceptable as evidence.” {Majority of the scholars are of the view that wiping the ears is Sunnah and mustahab, but is not obligatory. Some of them said that it is obligatory, as is the view of the Hanbalis}.

[7] Sahih: Al-Mughirah bin Shu’bah said: “The Messenger of Allah (SallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) made Wudu and wiped over his forehead and over his turban.” Reported in Sahih Muslim and Sunan Abu Dawud.

[8] Sahih: Narrated by Humran (the slave of `Uthman): I saw `Uthman bin `Affan asking for a tumbler of water (and when it was brought) he poured water over …. and washed his feet up to the ankles thrice….’” Reported in Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim.

[9] Sahih: Narrated by Mugheerah bin Shu’bah; Reported in Sunan Abu Dawood, Tirmizi, Nasa’i and Ibn Majah; graded Sahih by sheikh albani in al-Irwaa no. 101. Also on the authority of Aws ibn Abee Aws narrated that ‘the Messenger of Allaah (SallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) performed ablution and wiped over his shoes and feet.’ Narrated by Aws ibn Abee Aws ath-Thaqafee; Reported in Sunan Abu Dawood; graded Sahih by sheikh albani in Al-Mashh Ala Al-Jawrabayn of Al-Qaasimee.

[10] Sahih: From the Amir al-Momineen Abu Hafs ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab (radiAllahu ‘anhu ), that he said, “I heard the Messenger of Allah SallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam say, ‘Actions are only by intentions, and every man has only that which he intended….” Reported in Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim.

[11] Sahih: Narrated by Humran (the slave of `Uthman): I saw `Uthman bin `Affan asking for a tumbler of water (and when it was brought) he poured water over his hands and washed them thrice and then put his right hand in the water container and rinsed his mouth, washed his nose by putting water in it and then blowing it out. Then he washed his face and forearms up to the elbows thrice, passed his wet hands over his head and washed his feet up to the ankles thrice….” Reported in Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim.

[12] Sahih: Narrated by Nu`aim al-Mujmir: “I heard the Prophet (SallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) saying, ‘On the Day of Resurrection, my followers will be called al-Ghurr-al-Muhajjalin from the trace of ablution (wudu’) and whoever can increase the area of his radiance should do so.’” In the narration of Imam Muslim: I saw Abu Hurairah perform ablution. He washed his face and washed his hands up to the arms. He then washed his feet and reached up to the shanks and then said, “I heard my friend (the Prophet (SallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam)) saying, ‘On the day of Resurrection, the light will reach to the furthest the water of wudu reaches.’” (Abu Hurayrah (radiAllahu ‘anhu ) added), “so whoever among you is able to increase the brightness of his face, let him do so.” Reported in Sahih Muslim.

[13] Sahih: Narrated by Abu Hurairah (radiAllahu ‘anhu ): The Prophet  (SallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) said: “If it were not to be a hardship on my nation, I would have ordered them to use the Siwak when making Wudu (Ablution).” Reported in Musnad Ahmad. Graded by Sahih by sheikh albani in Sahih al-Jami no. 5416

[14] Quran / Sahih: Allah says, “…If any of you comes from answering the call of nature…” (Surah Maa’idah:6). Also, narrated by Abu Hurairah (radiAllahu ‘anhu ): the Messenger of Allah (SallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) said, “The prayer of none amongst you would be accepted in a state of impurity till he performs wudu’.” Reported in Bukhari and Muslim

[15] Hasan: ‘Ali ibn Abi Taalib (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) said: Rasoolullah (SallAllaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said “The eye is the drawstring for the anus, so he who sleeps then let him make wudu.” Reported in Sunan Ibn Majah and Sunan Abu Dawud has a similar wording. Graded Hasan by sheikh albani in Sahih Ibn Majah no.386. Imam Shawkani mentions in Nail al-Awtaar (vol 1, p. 242) that what this hadith means is that when one is awake, he is aware of any gas that he may pass and thus his being awake is termed the drawstring concerning gassing.

[16] Sahih: Jaabir ibn Samurah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) narrates that a man asked Rasoolullah (SallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam): Should I make wudu because of the meat of sheep? He (SallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) said “If you wish make wudoo and if you wish then do not make wudu.” He said: Should I make wudu from the meat of the camel? He (SallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam)said “Yes, make wudu from the meat of the camel.” He asked: May I pray in sheep-pens? He (SallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) said “Yes.” He asked: May I pray in the stalls of camels? He (SallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) said “No.” Reported in sahih Muslim

[17] Sahih: Allah’s Messenger (SallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) said, “Whoever touches his private part should then make wudu.” Reported in Sunan Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, Nasa’i and Tirmizi. Graded Sahih by sheikh albani in Sahih ibn Majah no. 388. In other narrations mentioned “Whoever touches his private part should not perform the prayer until he has performed wudu.”

[18] Sahih: Abu Sa’eed (RadiAllahu ‘anhu) reported that he heard the Messenger of Allah (SallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) say, “Water (washing) is (needed) after (ejaculation of) sperm.” Reported in Sahih Muslim. Also an evidence is when Umm Salamah narrated that Umm Sulaym said, “O Messenger of Allah (SallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam)! Allah does not shy away from the truth. Does the woman have to make ghusl if she has a wet dream?” He replied, “Yes, if she sees the liquid.” Reported in Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim and Sunan Tirmizi.

[19] Sahih: Abu Hurayrah (RadiAllahu ‘anhu) reported that the Messenger of Allah (SallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) said, “If one places himself between her four parts (that is thighs of his wife) and has intercourse with her, then ghusl is obligatory whether or not he ejaculated.” Reported in Sahih Muslim.

[20] Sahih: A’ishah (RadiAllahu ‘anha) narrated that the Prophet (SallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) said to Fatimah bint Abi Hubaysh, “When the menses come upon you, leave the prayers. And when the (menses) leave you, then make ghusl.” Reported in Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawood, Tirmizi and Nasa’i. Other than Bukhari they have “And wash the blood from you.”

[21] Sahih: A’ishah (RadiAllahu ‘anha) narrated that the Prophet (SallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) said to Fatimah bint Abi Hubaysh, “When the menses come upon you, leave the prayers. And when the (menses) leave you, then make ghusl.” Reported in Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawood, Tirmizi and Nasa’i. Post-partum bleeding carries the same ruling as menstruation in the manner according to the consensus (Ijma) of the scholars.

[22] Sahih: Umm Salamah narrated that Umm Sulaym said, “O Messenger of Allah (SallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam)! Allah does not shy away from the truth. Does the woman have to make ghusl if she has a wet dream?” He replied, “Yes, if she sees the liquid.” Reported in Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim and Sunan Tirmizi.

[23] Sahih: Umm ‘Atiyya (RadiAllahu ‘anha) narrated that the daughter of the Prophet (SallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) died, and he said to us, “Wash her three or five times, or more if you see it necessary, and when you finish, notify me.” So, (when we finished) we informed him and he unfastened his waist-sheet and told us to shroud her in it. Narrated by al-Bukhari. The majority of scholars are of the view that death is one of the things that make ghusl obligatory

[24] Sahih: Qays ibn Asm stated that when he embraced Islam, the Prophet (SallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) ordered him to make Ghusl with water and lotus leaves. Recorded in Sunan Nasa’i, Tirmizi and Abu Dawud. Graded Sahih by sheikh albani in I’rwa al-Ghaleel no.128

[25] Qur’an: Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “If you are in a state of Janaabah (i.e. after a sexual discharge), purify yourselves (bathe your whole body)” [Surah al-Maa’idah 5:6]

[26] Sahih: Narrated Maymunah: “Water was placed for the ablution of Allah’s Messenger (SallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) after Janabah. He poured water with his right hand over his left twice or thrice, then washed his private parts and rubbed his hands on the earth or on a wall twice or thrice, then rinsed his mouth, washed his nose by putting water in it and then blowing it out….” Reported in Sahih Bukhari

[27] Sahih: Narrated Maymunah: “Water was placed for the ablution of Allah’s Messenger (SallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) after Janabah. He poured water with his right hand over his left twice or thrice, then washed his private parts and rubbed his hands on the earth or on a wall twice or thrice, then rinsed his mouth, washed his nose by putting water in it and then blowing it out, then washed his face, then forearms, and poured water over his head and washed his body. Then he shifted from that place and washed his feet…..”

[28] Sahih: Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri (RadiAllahu ‘anhu) narrated that the Prophet (SallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) said, “Ghusl on the day of Friday is obligatory on every post-puberty (person).” Reported in Sahih Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawood, Nasa’i and ibn Majah.

[29] Hasan/Sahih: Narrated from Abu Hurayrah (RadiAllahu ‘anhu) that the Prophet (SallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) said: “Whoever has washed a dead person, let him do ghusl.” Reported in Musnad Ahmad, Abu Dawood and al-Tirmizi who said it is a Hasan hadeeth. The Prophet (SallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) also said: “Whoever washes the dead, let him do ghusl, and whoever carries him, let him do wudu’.” Narrated by Sunan Abu Dawood, al-Tirmizi. Shaykh al-Albani (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: “…Some of its isnaads are Hasan, and some are Sahih according to the conditions of Muslim…. I say: it was classed as Sahih by Ibn al-Qattaan, and by Ibn Hazm in al-Muhalla, 1/250 and 2/23-25, and by al-Haafiz in al-Talkhees, 2/134 (Muneeriyyah edition). And he said, at the very least it is Hasan.” Ahkaam al-Janaa’iz, 71. 72.

[30] Hasan: Zaid bin At-Thabit (RadiAllahu ‘anhu) narrated he saw the Messenger of Allah (SallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) take off his clothes for consecration and then take a bath.” Reported in Sunan Tirmizi. Graded Hasan by sheikh albani in al-Irwa no.149

[31] Sahih: Abdullah Ibn Umar (RadiAllahu ‘anhu) would not enter Makkah unless he would spend the night at Dhu Tuwa until the morning and then make Ghusl and then enter Makkah during the daytime. He narrated that the Prophet (SallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) had done that. Reported in Sahih Bukhari, Muslim and this is his wording.

[32] Sahih: ‘Imran bin Husain (RadiAllahu ‘anhu) said, “We were with the Messenger of Allah (SallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) during a journey. When he led the people in prayer, one man stayed apart. He asked him, “What prevented you from praying?” He said, ‘I need a post-nocturnal bath and there is no water.’ He said, ‘Use the soil, for it is sufficient.”’ Reported in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim

[33] Sahih: Narrated by Said bin Abdur Rahman bin Abza (RadiAllahu ‘anhu): (On the authority of his father who said) ‘Ammar said so (the above Statement). And Shu’bah stroked lightly the earth with his hands and brought them close to his mouth (blew off the dust) and passed them over his face and then the backs of his hands. ‘Ammar said, “Ablution (meaning Tayammum here) is sufficient for a Muslim if water is not available.” Recorded in Sahih Bukhari

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