Ad-Durur Al-Bahiyah fi Masaa’il Al-Fiqhiyyah (The Crystalline Gems Of Islamic Jurisprudence) by Imam Shawkani (Kitab As-Salah Translated: Ch 1 – Ch 2 Fully referenced with the ahadith)
The Book of Prayer
Chapter 1: The Times of Prayer
The time of the Noon (Dhuhr) prayer starts once the sun passes the meridian. Except for the shade of postmeridian time. The period Noon prayer ends when anything and its shadow are equal in length. This timing indicates the beginning of the evening (Asr) prayer. It is the time of the afternoon prayer as long as the sun is white and clear. The start of sunset (Maghrib) prayer time is sunset. The end of it is the disappearance of the twilight. This in turn indicates the start of the night (Isha) prayer, and its end is midnight.
The beginning of dawn (Fajr) prayer time is when the dawn breaks. It ends at sunrise.
Whoever missies a prayer due to sleep or forgetfulness makes it up upon waking or remembering. As for one who had an excuse and was able to pray a rak’ah (a unit of prayer) then he has offered such prayer with the group. Timing is obligatory.
Prayers may be combined if there is a permissible excuse.
One who has done Tayammum and whose prayer is incomplete or purity should offer prayer like others without delay.
Disliked times to pray exclude Makkah are:
- After the dawn till the sun rises
- The postmeridian (Zawwal) period excluding Friday
- After the afternoon payer till sunset
However, permitted to pray in these times is whoever has a reason to pray like customary ones of ablution, the greeting the Masjid, etc. Those that are prohibited are the absolute voluntary prayers.
Chapter 2: The Adhan (The Call to Prayer)
It is legislated required that inhabitants of an area appoint one or more callers to prayer. The caller (Mu’adhdhin) is to summon using the legislated words when it is time for prayer. Upon hearing the call, it is recommended that the hearer follow the caller (i.e. repeat the words of the call).
It is also a requirement to pronounce Iqaamah (i.e. call to stand or prayer) according to what has been mentioned in regard to it.
 Sahih: One of the evidences for the times of salah is the following: Jabir bin ‘Abdullah said: “Jibril, peace be upon him, came to the Prophet () when the sun had passed its zenith and said: ‘Get up, O Muhammad, and pray Zuhr when the sun has passed its zenith.’ Then he waited until a man’s shadow was equal to his height. Then he came to him for ‘Asr and said: ‘Get up, O Muhammad, and pray ‘Asr.’ Then he waited until the sunset, then he came to him and said: ‘Get up, O Muhammad, and pray Maghrib.’ So he got up and prayed it when the sun had set. Then he waited until the twilight disappeared, then he came to him and said: ‘Get up, O Muhammad, and pray ‘Isha’.’ So he got up and prayed it. Then he came to him when dawn broke and said: ‘Get up, O Muhammad, and pray.’ So he got up and prayed Subh.’ So he got up and prayed Subh. Then he came to him the next day when a man’s shadow was equal to his height, and said: ‘Get up, O Muhammad, and pray.’ So he prayed Zuhr. Then Jibril came to him when a man’s shadow was equal to twice his length and said: ‘Get up, O Muhammad, and pray.’ So he prayed ‘Asr. Then he came to him for Maghrib when the sun set, at exactly the same time as the day before, and said: ‘Get up, O Muhammad, and pray.’ So he prayed Maghrib. Then he came to him for ‘Isha’ when the first third of the night had passed, and said: ‘Get up and pray.’ So he prayed ‘Isha’. Then he came to him for Subh when it had become very bright, and said: ‘Get up and pray.’ So he prayed Subh. Then he said: ‘The times of prayer one between those two (limits).'” Reported in Musnad Ahmad, Sunan Nasa’i and Sunan Tirmizi. Graded Sahih by sheikh albani in Irwa al-Ghaleel no. 250. Imam Tirmizi said “Muhammed (meaning Bukhari) said ‘The most authentic report concerning the times of prayers is the hadith of Jabir.’
 Sahih: Anas reported that the Prophet of Allah said, “Whoever forgets a prayer or sleeps through it, then the expiation is to perform it when he remembers it.” Reported in Sahih Muslim
 Sahih: Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet said, “Whoever has caught a rak’ah of the prayer has caught the prayer.” Reported in Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Sunan Abu Dawud, Sunan Tirmizi and Sunan Nasa’i. Also the narration, Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah said, “Whoever catches a rak’ah of the morning prayer before the sun rises has caught the morning prayer. Whoever catches a rak’ah of the afternoon prayer before the sun sets has caught the afternoon prayer.” Reported in Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim
 Sahih: Abu Dharr reported: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said to me: How would you act when you are under the rulers who would delay the prayer beyond its prescribed time, or they would make prayer a dead thing as far as its proper time is concerned? I said: What do you command? He (the Holy Prophet) said:” Perform prayer at its proper time, then catch it while they are performing it and join them. It would be a voluntary prayer for you.
 Sahih: Abdullah Ibn Abbas said, “The Messenger of Allah combined the noon and afternoon prayers and the sunset and night prayers in Madina without being in a state of fear and rain.” He was then asked, “What did he mean by that act?” ibn Abbas said, “He wanted his nation not face any hardship.” Reported in Sahih Muslim and Sunan Nasa’i
 Sahih: Jubair bin Mut’im narrated that : The Prophet said: “O Banu Abd Manaf! Do not prevent anyone from performing Tawaf around this House, and Salat, whichever hour it is of the night or day.” Reported Sunan Tirmizi, Sunan Nasa’i and Sunan Ibn Majah. Graded Sahih by sheikh albani in Sahih Sunan ibn Majah no.1036
 Sahih: Abu Hurairah narrated that the Messenger of Allah said, “Whoever takes a bath, then comes to Friday prayer, then prays what was fixed from him, then keeps silent till the Imam finishes the sermon and then prays along with him, his sins committed between that time and the next Friday will be forgiven and with an addition of three days more.” Reported in Sahih Muslim
 Sahih: The evidence for the above three points is – Uqbah ibn Amir said, “There are three times (of the day) concerning which the Messenger of Allah prohibited us from praying or from burying our dead: when the sunrise first occurs until it rises (above the horizon), during high noon until the sun goes past its zenith, when the sun is leaning toward sunset until it sets.” Reported in Sahih Muslim, Sunan Abu Dawud, Sunan Tirmizi, Sunan Nasa’i and Sunan Ibn Majah
 Sahih: Abu Hurairah narrated the Prophet said to Bilal at the time of the Morning prayer, ‘Inform me of a deed you performed in Islam concerning which you have the most hope for as I heard your footsteps in front of me in Paradise.’ He replied, ‘There is no deed concerning which I am more hopeful except that I never purify myself during the night or day but that I pray with that purification whatever has been recorded for me to pray.” Reported in Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim
 Sahih: Abu Qatadah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi was sallam) said, “When anyone of you enters the mosque, he should perform two Rak’ah (of voluntary prayer) before sitting.” Reported in Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim
 Sahih: It was narrated that ‘Uthman bin Abi Al-As said: “I said: ‘O Messenger of Allah appoint me the Imam of my people.’ He said: ‘You are their Imam, so consider the weakest among them and choose a Mu’adhdhin (caller of the prayer) who does not accept any payment for his Adhan.'” Reported in Sunan Abu Dawud, Sunan Ibn Majah and Sunan Nasa’i. Graded Sahih by sheikh albani in Sahih Sunan Abi Dawud no.497. Also the narration: ibn al-Huwayrith narrated that the Prophet of Allah said, “If the prayer time comes, one of you should make the call to prayer and the eldest of you should lead you in prayer.” Reported in Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim
 Sahih: Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri narrated that the Prophet said, “If you hear the call (to prayer), say similar to what the caller is saying.” Reported in Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Sunan Abu Dawud, Sunan Tirmizi, Sunan Ibn Majah and Sunan Nasa’i
 Sahih: Anas narrated, “The Messenger of Allah commanded Bilal to pronounce (each phrase of) the call twice and (each phrase of) the standing (for prayer), Iqaamah once except the phase ‘Qad qaamati’s salah’ (the prayer is about to begin), which is to be pronounced twice.” Reported in Sunan Nasa’i. Graded Sahih by sheikh albani.