Chapter 3: The Prohibition of Narrating Everything One Hears
Ubayd Allah bin Mu’ādh al-Anbarī narrated to us, my father narrated to us; and Muhammad bin ul-Muthannā narrated to us, Abd ur-Rahman bin Mahdī both narrated to us: Shu’bah narrated to us, on authority of Khubayb bin Abd ir-Rahman, on authority of Hafs bin Āsim, on authority of Abī Hurayrah, he said, the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah upon him, said: ‘It is enough of a lie for a man to narrate everything he hears’.
This hadeeth is collected by the author here with the aforementioned chain of narration, Abu Dawud in his Sunan (no. 4992), and al-Haakim in al-Mustadarak (1/112) and he said: “The chain is authentic.”
Muhammad ibn Adam says concerning this chain of narration: “Om the authority of Hafs ibn Asim” that the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alayhi was sallam) said: this chain of narration is Mursal (the hadeeth of a Tabi saying, “The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alayhi was sallam) said or did such and such.” Without mentioning the intermediary between him and the Prophet) making no mention of Abu Hurairah and this is what is correct. It comes in the print of the explanation of al-Qadi Iyyaad and an-Nawawi: also, the Turki print, and the Mukhtasir of al-Qurtubi with a connected chain of narration, mentioning Abu Hurairah, and this is an error. Al- Maazari said: “It was related by Shu’bah on the authority of Khubayb ibn Abd- al-Rahman on the authority of Hafs ibn Asim (that the Messenger of Allah said …) and related it with a Mursal chain without mentioning Abu Hurairah. This is similar to what was narrated in the hadeeth of Mu’adh ibn Mu’adh, Ghundar, and Abd al-Rahman ibn Mahdi on the authority of Shu’bah. Except in the print of Abu Abbas al-Raazi is the chain of narration: On the authority of Shu’bah on the authority of Khubayb on the authority of Hafs on the authority of Abu Hurairah, but is not authentic. Afterward, Muslim connected this chain by way of Ali ibn Hafs on the authority of Shu’bah. Ali ibn Umar ad-Daraqutni said: “What is correct is that it is Mursal on the authority of Shu’bah just as was related by Mu’adh, Ghundar, and Ibn Mahdi.”
Abu al-Abbas al-Qurtubi said in al-Mufhim: “This is what has come from all of the narrators of Muslim’s work (as-Sahih) – meaning Mursal – and has been connected to Abu Hurairah by Abu Al-Abbas al-Raazi alone.”
Muhammad ibn Adam says: “So it is clear from this that the majority of the narrators of Muslim’s book (As-Sahih) relate this chain Mursal and this is what is correct.”
Al-Qurtubi said: “The meaning of the hadeeth is that whoever narrates everything that he hears will relate a good deal if lies; for indeed the person will hear what is sound along with that which is not. Thus, if her narates everything that he hears, he will narrate weak narrations and lies. It will in turn be related from him, and he will be disbelieved because of it; therefore, Maalik alluded to thia in his statement: “No person is safe who narrates everything that he hears, and he will never be an Imam.” Meaning, if there are lies found in his narrations, he will not be trusted in his hadeeth and will be criticized accordingly. It will not be suitable for anyone to follow him-even if he may be a scholar-but if he clarifies the authentic from the weak and the truth from the lies, he safeguards himself from that and frees himself from what is obligatory upon him from sincere advice in the religion.”
Abū Bakr bin Abī Shaybah narrated to us, Alī bin Hafs narrated to us, Shu’bah narrated to us, on authority of Khubayb bin Abd ir-Rahman, on authority of Hafs bin Āsim, on authority of Abī Hurayrah, on authority of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah upon him, the same as that.
Yahyā bin Yahyā narrated to us, Hushaym informed us, on authority of Sulaymān at-Taymī, on authority of Abī Uthmān an-Nahdī, he said, Umar bin ul-Khattāb, may Allah be pleased with him, said: ‘It is enough of a lie for a man that he narrates everything he hears’.
This narration of Umar ibn Khattab is from the reports which the author (Imam Muslim) alone collected; it is not collected by any of the other authors of the Usul. He relates it with this chain of narration only. Look in Tuhfah al-Asraaf (8/85), and Allah knows best.
Abūt-Tāhir Ahmad bin Amr bin Sarh narrated to me, he said, Ibn Wahb narrated to us, he said, Mālik said to me: ‘Know that a man will not be safe who narrates everything he hears, and whoever narrates everything he hears will never be an Imam’.
Al-Fayyumi said: “al-Imam can mean the ruler, the scholar whom knowledge is taken from or the one who leads the prayer.”
This means he is not suited to be an Imam over the people, whether it is the great Imamate, i.e. the ruler, or the lesser Imamate, i.e. the leader of the prayer and what is like it if he relates to the people everything he hears. Because relating everything will includes lies-by the proof og the previous narration-and it removes one from the way of resoluteness and prudence, and it diverts from the benefits found in the Islamic legislation and (sound) intellect. Therefore, the one (who relates everything he hears) is not suitable to assume the postion of an Imam. And Allah knows best.
Muhammad bin ul-Muthannā narrated to us, he said Abd ur-Rahman narrated to us, he said Sufyān narrated to us, on authority of Abī Ishāq, on authority of Abīl-Ahwas, on authority of Abd Illah, he said: ‘It is enough of a lie for a man that he narrates everything he hears’.
Muhammad bin ul-Muthannā narrated to us, he said I heard Abd ar-Rahman bin Mahdī saying: ‘A man cannot be an Imām whose example is followed until he withholds from some of what he hears’.
What is intended by “some” is what is found to be a lie, or there is question as to whether it is a lie. This means that what is upon the person who deserves to be a leader of the people is that he only narrates what he is certain is true and abandons what he doubts. This is a greater incentive for the people to answer his call and turn to him for benefit. And Allah knows best.
Yahyā bin Yahyā narrated to us, Umar bin Alī bin Muqaddam informed us, on authority of Sufyān bin Husayn, he said: ‘Iyās bin Mu’āwiyah asked me saying: ‘Indeed I see that you love knowledge of the Qur’ān, so recite for me a Sūrah and explain it until I can reflect on what you know’. [Sufyān] said, so I did that, and [Iyās] said to me: ‘Memorize from me what I am about to say to you- Beware of abominations in Ḥadīth for indeed rarely does anyone convey them except he lowers himself and his Ḥadīth are denied’.’
He is warning him against narrating Munkar (rejected) hadith, which would cause the narrator to be reviled and disbelieved in what he relates; thus, his position would dimish in the sight of the people…………………