Questioner: As regards the Jumu’ah prayer, the mu’addhin gives the adhaan, then one prays the two rak’ah Sunnahs of Jumu’ah, is that allowed or not?
Shaykh Al-Albaani: [You said], ‘Is it allowed?’ what are you referring to?
Questioner: The two rak’ahs …
Shaykh Al-Albaani: There are no Sunnah [rak’ahs] for Jumu’ah [prayer], Yaa akhi. The Jumu’ah Sunnah prayers which are well-known today amongst many people have no basis in the Sunnah, why?
I will relate a hadith from Sahih Bukhaari to you, the most authentic book after the Book of Allaah, with an authentic chain of narration from as-Saa’ib ibn Yazeed who said the adhaan in the time of the Prophet ﷺ was the first adhaan only, when the Prophet ﷺ would ascend the minbar the mu’addhin would give the adhaan, when he finished the Prophet ﷺ would stand up and deliver the sermon. There was no room for Sunnah prayers before Jumu’ah …
… the Sunnah on Jumu’ah that a Muslim must stick to is to go to the mosque early, the earlier the better, due to his saying ﷺ, “Whoever goes during the first hour, then it is as though he has offered a camel as a sacrifice to seek the Pleasure of Allah, and he who goes at the second hour is like one who offers a cow to win the Pleasure of Allah, and he who comes at the third hour is like one who offers a ram with horns (in sacrifice) and he who comes at the fourth hour is like one who offers a hen, and he who comes at the fifth hour is like one who offers an egg,” so the earlier he is the better.
[So when he does finally] enter the mosque, whether it is early or later, he prays two rak’ahs, four, six, eight, without a limit, because these are called optional prayers [naafilah], these are not Sunnah prayers which the Prophet ﷺ specified, no, and that’s why he ﷺ said in an authentic hadith, “Whoever takes a bath on Friday, and bathes completely, and goes early, arriving early, and then prays as much as he wants, then sits close to the Imaam, and listens to him … except that he is forgiven whatever was between that Jumu’ah and the one after it.”
So this person who enters the mosque on Friday can pray as much as he is able to and according to how much energy he has, and how much time.
But as for what happens nowadays then that has no basis in the Sunnah at all. And that which happens nowadays … how did two adhaans come about?
In the time of ’Uthmaan ibn ’Affaan, Medinah expanded as its residents increased. When the Prophet ﷺ first migrated to Medinah it was like a village/small town naturally, Islaam spread and the Companions started to come and take up residence there bit by bit. In the time of ’Uthmaan, may Allaah be pleased with him, ya’ni, during his khilaafah, Medinah, maa shaa Allaah, became a city, the capital of the Islamic state, and an idea came to him, and how good an idea it was, considering that even until today, as you know, Jumu’ah is only prayed in the Prophet’s Mosque, [this has changed now], they were like that in the time of the Prophet ﷺ, and Abu Bakr and ’Umar and ’Uthmaan … but due to the the expansion of the buildings in Medinah the people who were outside Medinah and in the market called Az-Zawraa couldn’t hear the adhaan in the Prophet’s Mosque, so he made an adhaan there, so let us now [for argument’s sake] call this, ‘The second adhaan.’
… the first adhaan is the one which the Prophet ﷺ established, and this [other] one is called the second adhaan because ’Uthmaan brought it after the first but he didn’t do so except for the people in the market to be able to hear that Jumu’ah prayer’s time has arrived, and that yallah, ‘Come to prayer,’—[so to reiterate] where did ’Uthmaan place this second adhaan? In the market, a well-known place in the books of hadith called, ‘Az-Zawraa.’
It carried on like this up until the time of Hishaam ibn ’Abdul-Malik al-Amawi, it seemed an idea to him to move the adhaan from Az-Zawraa to the mosque, and from that day the situation changed.
And as time passed, a gap appeared between the two adhaans and the people filled it with what they call, ‘The Sunnah prayers anterior to Jumu’ah,’ and these Sunnah prayers done before Jumu’ah have no validity, because in his time, the Prophet, as I told you occurs in Saheeh al-Bukhaari, used to leave his home and ascend the minbar and Bilaal would give the adhaan and when he would finish the adhaan the Prophet ﷺ would start the khutbah, there was no place for two Sunnah rak’ahs let alone four …
Al-Hudaa wan-Noor, 3.