Predestination, its good and its evil, is from Allah.
What is meant by belief in al-Qada’ (the Divine will) is: certain belief that everything that happens in this universe happens by the will and decree of Allaah.
We should also note that belief in al-Qadar is not valid unless you believe in the four aspects of al-Qadar, which are as follows:
- Belief that Allaah knows all things, in general terms and in detail, from eternity to eternity. Not a single atom is unknown to Him in the heavens or on earth.
Allah’s knowledge encompasses everything. He knows what has occurred, what will occur and all that which has not occurred. He knew everything about His creation before He created it. He knows in His eternal knowledge about His creation ,their provisions, life spans, sayings, moves deeds, secrets all of their obedience and disobedient acts, who among them will be people of Jannah (Paradise) or who will be from the people of An Naar (fire): ‘Verily Allah is the All Knower of everything.” (8:75)
“And that Allah surrounds (comprehends) all things in his Knowledge.” (65:12)
Ali narrated that “one day the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) was sitting with a wooden stick in his hand with which he was scratching the ground. He raised his head and said “there is none of you but has his place assigned either in the fire or in Paradise.” They said, “O Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) Why should we carry on doing good deeds then, shall we depend (on Al-qadar) and give up work? The Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) said “No, but carry on doing good deeds, for everyone will find easy (to do) such deeds as will lead him to that for which he has been created “then he recited this ayat: “As for him who gives (in charity)and keeps his duty to Allah and fears Him, and believes in Al Husna (Tawheed, path of righteousness) we will make smooth for him the path of ease, goodness.. (92:5-10)”
- Belief that Allaah has decreed all things in al-Lawh al-Mahfooz, fifty thousand years before He created the heavens and the earth.
Allah wrote everything about the creation. He has written what He says and what He does and all that comes to existence due to His actions and sayings. All is written in Umm ul kitab (lit: the mother of the book) known also as (al-Lauh al-Mahfoudh) The preserved tablet and (Ad dhikr) the original book of records. Allah says which means): “Do not you know that Allah knows All that is in the Heaven and on earth? Verily, it is all in the book. Verily! That is easy for Allah”(22:70)
The prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) explained that “Allah had written the ordained measures (and due proportions) of the creation, fifty thousand years before the creation of the heavens and the earth and His Arsh was on the water” (saheeh Muslim v4 pg. 1397)
Allah ordered The Pen (Al-qalam) to write the records of all preordained measures and qualities unit; the hour is established.
- Belief that the will of Allaah is irresistible and His decree is comprehensive, so nothing happens in this universe, good or bad, but by His will.
Is the belief that Allah has willed everything that goes on in the universe. His will and His preordaining power effectively covers everything. Whatever He willed will occur and whatever He did not will not occur, “If Allah willed He would have made you one nation, but that He may test you in what He has given you.” (5:48)
Had Allah wished for us to follow one book, one legislation and one messenger, at all times and all places, He would have done that. What has passed is what Allah wished: tests, trials in the different judicial legislation’s which He has brought down; thereupon these who will comply will be distinguished from those who disobey or reject. He is All Just and All Wise in His Masheeah (will)
The Mashee’ah (Will) and the Iradah (what Allah wants)
Allah’s Mashee’ah (Will) is of 2 type:
- Mashee’ah pertinent to His creation and command. It is not necessary that what is being carried out by His creation is liked by Him. He however willed it to pass.
Allah created Satan, yet He hates him. He also created many things He loves. Whatever He permitted to exist, from kufr, belief, obedience or disobedience is pertinent to His Mashheeah, whether He loves it or not. This is also known as Iradah Kawniyyah (universal will) in this will Allah may decree to pass things which He does not command His slaves to follow. Eg: kuffar or disobedience. No one can escape this universal will of Allah or go against it.
- Iradah Ash shareeyyah pertinent to Allahs legislation. It is related to what Allah loves and likes whether it takes place or not. The acts of obedience taking place by Allahs creation are loved by Allah and are passed by His universal will. Under His judicial will it is not necessary that His commands are carried out. Some people rebel against his commands. So Allah loves obedience or that we obey our parents etc. but not everyone is obedient to Allah, so even though Allah loves for those to take place, it does not necessarily take place. The linkage between Al Iradah Al kawniyyah and the Iradah Shareeyyah is clear in the following ayah: “and He likes not kufr for His slaves.” (40:7)
Allah does not like or love kuffar, yet it exists
- Belief that all that exists was created by Allaah. He is the Creator of all beings and the Creator of their attributes and actions.
Allah is the sole creator of everything including mans deeds. No single atom or higher element, static or in motion exists, but Allah has created it. Nothing takes place in this world except Allah has created it.
‘Verily Allah is the creator of everything.” (39:62)
“Say (O Muhammad) that Allah is the creator of everything and He is the one Irresistible.” (13:16)
In all of His actions there is perfect Wisdom. He does not do anything in vain nor is His action devoid of any meaning. His actions are Real, All Wise, and All just. His creatures and their deeds are His creation.
The slave of Allah has real ability, will, choice and action. Mans ability to move and to believe are actions that are truly attributed to Him. These actions are created by Allah Mans movement, standing, sitting etc.. are real actions which Allah decreed, set under His ability, willed and created them for Him. Mans will and actions are next to His swt. This is the medium and straight way of relating the actions of Allah to those of His creation. This is the course of the salaf us salih (righteous predecessors).
It stand against two extremes:
- The claim made by a sect called Al Jabariyyah-they hold that the people have no free will and are not responsible for their actions, rather they are forced like a feather in the wind.
- Known as Al-qadariyyah-they deny Al-qadar and claim that an creates his own actions by his own ability and will making creators other than Allah. That is why the prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) called them Majoos (magians) of this ummah,” because the Majoos claim that Satan created evil and harmful things, making Satan a creator besides Allah
The medium course is that of Ahlu Sunnah the followers of as Salaf us Salih. Allah swt has created our actions and knows them before we do them due to his Perfect Knowledge but this does not negate that people have free will and responsible for their actions because Allah does not force us to choose that action.
 Recorded in Sahih Muslim