The First Division
Definition Of Mustalah Al-Hadeeth: This is the collection of various principles by which one can determine the authenticity or weakness of a narrator or narration of a hadeeth which is attributed to the Messenger of Allaah (ﷺ).
Benefits Of Mustalah Al-Hadeeth: This is the knowledge with which one can accept or reject a narrator or narration which is connected or related to the Prophet of Allaah (ﷺ).
Types Of Narrations:
- Al-Hadeeth: This is a narration which is directly connected to the Prophet of Allaah (ﷺ) concerning his sayings, actions, tacit approvals, descriptions and manners.
- Al-Khabar: This type of narration has the same meaning and definition as ‘hadeeth’. However, the khabar narration can be related to the Messenger of Allaah (ﷺ) as well as other than him. Therefore, the khabar narrations are more general than the ‘hadeeth’ narrations.
- Al-Athar: This is a narration, which is connected to the Sahaba (companions), Tabi’een and Abtaa tabi’een (successors). Although, this terminology can be used in relation to the Prophet of Allaah (Sallallahu ‘alayhi wa salam) but the Muhaddith (Scholar of narrations) must show that the ‘athar’ is directly connected to the Messenger of Allaah (ﷺ).
- Al-Hadeeth Al-Qudsee: This is a narration reported by the Prophet of Allaah (ﷺ) on the authority of Allaah (Tabaraka wa ta’alaa).
This narration has two other names; ‘al-Hadeeth ar-Rabbanee’ and ‘al-Hadeeth al-Ilahee’. The level of the Hadeeth Qudsi is between the Qur’an and the Hadeeth Nabawi. This ranking is nothing to do with the value of the narrations but rather, there are conditions that place these narrations in this particular order.
The words of the Qur’an are set in text and meaning, exactly the way Allaah (Azza wa jaal) revealed onto the heart of The Messenger of Allaah (ﷺ) i.e. it is connected directly to Allaah (Subhana wa ta ‘alaa) in both text and meaning. While the words of the Hadeeth Nabawi are directly related to the Messenger of Allaah (ﷺ) in text and meaning. However, the words of the Hadeeth Qudsi are related in meaning to Allaah (Tabaraka wa ta’alaa) but the text is from The Messenger of Allaah (ﷺ). Due to this fact, a number of points arise:
- The Hadeeth Qudsi cannot be recited as an act of worship (e.g. in prayer), for even though it’s meaning is from Allaah (Subhana wa ta ‘alaa), it’s text is not.
However, the whole of Qur’an is from Allaah (Azza wa jaal) in both text and meaning and thus, can be recited as an act of worship.
- The Hadeeth Qudsi was not used by the Prophet of Allaah (ﷺ) as a challenge to mankind to produce the like thereof. Although, the Qur’an was used to challenge the people to produce a text like it. Thus, the Qur’an is a miracle from
- Not all of the Hadeeth Qudsi narrations were transmitted amongst the people in Mutawaatir form as is the case with the Qur’an. Thus, one may find a Hadeeth Qudsi narration to be Da’eef (weak), Mawdoo (fabricated), etc. but this is certainly not the case with the Qur’an (i.e. all the words of the Qur’an are authentic.
Note: Every narration consists of 2 parts;
- Al- Isnad (The chain of narrators):- These are the people (men & women) who report the narration, starting from the Muhaddith e.g. Imam Muslim until it reaches the person to whom the narration is being related to e.g. the Prophet of Allaah (ﷺ).
- Al -Matn (the text/words of the narration):- This is the narration itself i.e. the words which are being attributed to the who was supposed to have made them.