The Science of Hadeeth By Shaykh Saalih al-‘Uthaymeen (Part 13)

Al-Wadi’oon (The Forgers/Fabricators)

Types:

  • Az-Zanaadiqah (Heretics): These are those people who wish to corrupt the ‘Aqeedah (Belief/Creed) of the Muslims, distort the rulings of the Shari’a (Divine Law) and change the picture of al-Islam, by inventing false and fabricated ahadeeth.[1] below are some examples of the zanaadiqah;
  • Muhammad ibn Sa’eed al-Masloob who was killed by the abbasid Caliph, Aboo Ja’far al-Mansoor (d.158H) Rahimahullaah. Al-Masloob invented the hadeeth below;

Narrated Anas bin Maalik (Radiyallaahu anhu): The Prophet of Allaah (Sallallahu ‘alayhi wa salam) said: “I am the seal/last of the Prophets except if Allaah wills.”[2]

So this liar intentionally added the words: ‘except if Allaah wills’, knowing that these words were never spoken by the Messenger of Allaah (‘Alahyi sallatu wa salam).[3]

Abdul-Kareem ibn Abee Awjaa who was ordered to death by the Ameer of Basra, Muhammad bin Sulayman bin ’Alee.[4] Ibn Abee Awjaa said at the very moment when he was put to death: ‘By Allaah! I have fabricated 4,000 ahadeeth, prohibiting what is halal (lawful) and permitting that which is haram (forbidden).’[5]

All the fabricated ahadeeth invented by all the zanaadiqah put together, amounts to about 14,000.

  • Al-Mutazalifoon ilaal Khulifa’a wal Umaraa’a: The forgers under this category fabricated ahadeeth in order to gain nearness to the rulers and people of knowledge. Below are some examples of liars who fall under this title;
  • Giyaath ibn Ibraaheem an-Nakh’ee al-Kufi who invented a hadeeth showing the permissibility of the competition of flying pigeons. The narration is as follows; Narrated Yahya ibn Ma’een: Giyaath ibn Ibraaheem came to the court of Caliph Mahdee who was very fond of pigeons. In that sitting/gathering, he had some pigeons with him. Giyaath was asked to say a hadeeth to the Caliph. So he said: “So-and-so reported to me that the Prophet of Allaah (Sallallahu ‘alayhi wa salam) had said: ‘No competition is allowed except that of shooting by arrows, racing of camels and horses or flying pigeons.’”

Mahdee allowed a reward to be given to him, but when he left, the Caliph Mahdee said: “I bear witness that your (i.e. referring to Giyaath) nape is that of a liar against the Prophet of Allaah (Sallallahu ‘alayhi wa salam).” Mahdee then said: “I made him do so.” So he ordered the pigeons to be slaughtered and he abandoned this practice completely.[6]

  • Muqaatil ibn Sulayman who was a scholar in the field of tafseer (science of the Qur’an) used to fabricate ahadeeth in order to please the ruling family of Abbasids.[7]
  • Narrated Aboo ‘Ubaydullaah, a minister of Caliph Mahdee (Rahimahullaah): Mahdee (Rahimahullaah) once said to me: “Do you not see this fellow (i.e. Muqaatil) who keeps on asking me: ‘If you wish, I will fabricate ahadeeth in the merit of ’Abbaas.’ And I said to him: ‘I do not require one at all.’”[8]
  • Al-Mutazalifoon ilaal ’Amah (The Story Tellers): These are the people who fabricate ahadeeth, full of amazing and incredible events. They did this in order to command respect and gain recognition amongst the general people. Below are some storytellers (Qussaas) and incidents concerning them;
  • Kulthoom ibn ’Amr al-‘Attaabee who once collected a crowd around him self in a mosque and related to them – with a full isnad – a hadeeth stating that he who touched the tip of his nose with his tongue might rest assured that he would never go to Hell. The audience showed their readiness to accept this forged hadeeth as authentic by trying to ascertain their fate in this way.[9]
  • Narrated Ja’far ibn Aboo ’Uthmaan at-Tayaalasee (Rahimahullaah): Ahmad bin Hanbal and Yahyaa ibn Ma’een (Rahimahumullaah) prayed in Rasafa mosque where a man stood up in front of them and said: Ahmad bin Hanbal and Yahya ibn Ma’een told me; on the authority of ’Abdur-Razzaaq; on the authority of Ma’mar; on the authority of Qatadah; on the authority of Anas bin Maalik (Radiyallaahu anhu); on the authority of the Prophet of Allaah (Sallallahu ‘alayhi wa salam): “The one who says ‘Laa ilaaha illa Allaah’, a bird is created out of each word, with a peak of gold and feathers of pearl.” He kept on narrating to the extent of 20 pages. Ahmad and Yahyaa looked at each other in astonishment. One said to the other: “Did you say the hadeeth?” The other replied: “I have just heard it now for the first time in my life.” So they kept quiet till the man finished his story, collected money from the people and then sat in a corner waiting for more. Ibn Ma’een indicated to him to come over. He came over hurriedly, expecting more money. Yahyaa ibn Ma’een asked him: “Who told you that hadeeth?” The man said: “Both Ahmad bin Hanbal and Yahyaa ibn Ma’een.” Ibn Ma’een said: “I am Yahyaa ibn Ma’een and this fellow is Ahmad bin Hanbal. We have never heard of this among the ahadeeth of the Prophet of Allaah (Sallallahu ‘alayhi wa salam). If you are bent on lying, then at least lie against anyone else except us.” He said: “Are you Yahyaa ibn Ma’een?” Ibn Ma’een replied in affirmation. He said: “I used to hear that Yahyaa ibn Ma’een was a stupid person. Today, I came to know it personally.” Ibn Ma’een said: “How did you conclude that I was a stupid person?” The man replied cunningly: “As if there are no other Yahyaa and Ahmad apart from the two of you. I have written from 17 Ahmad bin Hanbal other than this one.” Ahmad bin Hanbal put his sleeve on his face and said: “Let him go.” With an expression of mockery on his face, the man stood up.”[10]
  • Al-Mutahamisoon (Ignorant Ascetics): The fabricators under this title invent forged ahadeeth, with the intention of calling the people to devout their time in performing acts of worship. Below are some such fabricators;
  • Aboo ’Isma Nooh ibn Abee Maryam, known as Nooh al-Jaami’ was a Qadi (judge) in merv during the reign of al-Mansoor. He invented ahadeeth on the merits of each surah (chapter) of the Qur’an.

Narrated Aboo ’Umara al-Marwazee: Aboo ’Isma was asked: “Where did you get from ’Ikrimah from ‘Abdulllaah ibn ‘Abbaas (Radiyallaahu anhu) ahadeeth about the virtues of each surah or the Qur’aan, when ‘Ikrimah’s students do not posses such ahadeeth?” He replied: “I saw the people deserting the Qur’aan and occupying themselves with the fiqh of Aboo Haneefah and the maghaazee (narrations regarding battles) of Ibn Ishaaq. So I fabricated these ahadeeth, seeking reward from Allaah (Subhana wa ta ‘alaa).”[11]

  • Maysra ibn ’Abd Rabbihi who also invented ahadeeth about the virtues of each surah of the Qur’aan.1
  • Al-Muta’siboon (The Extremely Prejudice Sectarian): The difference between the muqaleed (blind follower) and the muta’sib (prejudice sectarian) is that a muqaleed attributes himself to a particular Shaykh (Scholar) or Madhab (School of thought) and follows what comes from his Shaykh or Madhab whether it be correct or not. Regarding the muta’sib, as well as performing taqleed (blind following) of his Shaykh or Madhab, he also has an extreme prejudice against other Shuyukh (Scholars) and Madhabs. So due to this prejudice, he forges ahadeeth to support, elevate or defend his Shaykh or Madhab and also he fabricates ahadeeth criticizing, disparaging and condemning other Shuyukh or Madhabs. Examples of some such forgers are cited below;
  • Maysarah ibn ’Abd Rabah who was a Shi’ate said: “I have forged 70 false ahadeeth about the excellence of ‘Ali ibn Abee Taalib.

Examples:

  1. Ishaaq ibnul Nujayhi al-Malti
  2. Maamoon ibn Ahmad al-Harawee
  3. Muhammad bin Sa’b al-Kalabee
  4. Al-Mughirah bin Sa’eed al-Kufi
  5. Al-Waqidi
  6. Ibn Abee Yahyaa

References:

[1]They are persons who claim to have surrendered to Islam but did not accept it wholeheartedly. Thus, they despised the religion of Islam both as Belief and Law.

[2] Tadreeb ar-Raawee by as-Suyuti (d.911H) pg.186

[3] He forged these words to support the heresy that he was a prophet after the Messenger of Allaah (‘Alahyi sallatu wa salam) and he called the people to this heresy. He fabricated a hadeeth about the origin of the Creator;

[4] He fabricated a hadeeth about the origin of the Creator; The Messenger of Allaah (‘Alahyi sallatu wa salam) said: “When Allaah (Azza wa jaal) wanted to create Himself, He created the horse first and let it gallop till it sweated. Then He created Himself from its sweat. Al-La’alee al-Masnu’ah feel Ahadeeth al-Mawdoo’a by as-Suyuti (d.911H)

[5] Al-Mawdoo’at al Kubra by ibn Jawzi (d.597H)

[6] Ikhtisar ’Uloomul-Hadeeth by Ibnul-Katheer (d.744H)

[7] This example was added by the translators

[8] Ikhtisar ’Uloomul-Hadeeth by Ibnul-Katheer

[9] Yateematad –Dahr by ath-Tha’aalibee Vol.3 pg.179

[10] Ibn Hibbaan

[11] Ikhtisar ’Uloomul-Hadeeth by Ibnul-Katheer pg. 81

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One thought on “The Science of Hadeeth By Shaykh Saalih al-‘Uthaymeen (Part 13)

  1. Pingback: The Science of Hadeeth By Shaykh Saalih al-‘Uthaymeen (Part 13) | SERAAT-E-MUSTAQEEM

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