The Science of Hadeeth By Shaykh Saalih al-‘Uthaymeen (Part 15)

Types Of Narrations According To A Particular Authority

This type of narration is divided into 3 categories;

  1. Marfu’ (Elevated):

This is a narration which is connected to the Messenger of Allaah (ﷺ). It is of 2 types;

  • Marfu’al Sarihan (Directly Elevated):- This is a narration which is directly related to the Prophet of Allaah (ﷺ) concerning his sayings, actions, tacit approvals and descriptions of his manners and features.

Examples of Marfu’al Sareehan:

  • A saying:

Narrated A’ishah bint Abu Bakr: the Messenger of Allaah (ﷺ) said: “Whoever introduces something which is not present in our religion, will have that thing rejected.”[1]

  • An action:

Narrated Hudhayfah ibn Yaman: “Whenever the Prophet of Allaah (ﷺ) got up at night, he used to clean his mouth with the Siwaak (tooth stick).”[2]

  • A tacit approval:

Narrated Mu’awiyah ibn Hakam: The Messenger of Allaah (ﷺ) asked (the slave girl): “Where is Allaah?” She replied: “He is above the sky.” He asked: “Who am I?” She replied: “You are Allaah’s Messenger.” He said (to her master): “Free her, for she is a believer.”[3]

  • A feature:

Narrated Al Bara’: “The Messenger of Allaah (ﷺ) was the most handsome of all the people and had the best appearance. He was neither too tall nor too short.”[4]

  • A manner:

Narrated ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Umar: “The Prophet of Allaah (ﷺ) was neither a Fahish (i.e. one who speaks bad words) nor a Mutafahish (i.e. one who speaks obscene and evil words to make the people laugh). He used to say: ‘The best amongst you are those who have the best manners and characters.’”[5]

2 – Marfu’al Hukman (Indirectly Elevated):- This is a statement or an action of the Sahaba which takes the ruling of being marfu’ [i.e. coming from the Messenger of Allaah (ﷺ)]. There are 7 types of marfu’al hukman;

  1. This is any saying of a Companion which is not from his own opinion, explanation nor was it taken from the Israelite Traditions (e.g. statements concerning the Day of Judgement, Punishment and Reward, the Conditions of the Day of Resurrection, etc). If the statement of a Companion is established to be from his opinion or explanation, then such a statement takes the ruling of being Mawqoof (i.e. coming from a Sahabi). Although, in the case where the narrations is taken from the Israelite Traditions, there is doubt as to what ruling should be given to such a statement i.e. whether it is from the Messenger of Allaah (ﷺ) or from the Tawrah (Torah). So due to the doubt surrounding this issue, such a statement cannot be given the ruling of being marfu’.

NOTE: It has been stated that the 4 ’Abdullaahs [i.e. Ibn Abbas, Ibn ’Amr al-As, Ibn ’Umar and Ibn Zubayr] have taken narrations from the Companion Ka’b ibn al-Ahbar who used to be a Jewish Rabbi and then embraced Islam, he was known to have a lot of Israelite Traditions.

2. This is any action of a Companion of which it has been established not to be from his own opinion or explanation e.g. the narration of ‘Ali ibn Abi Taalib who performed more than 4 ruku’ (bowing) in the 2 rakat (unit) solar eclipse prayer. However, this action of ‘Ali ibn Abi Taalib is in opposition to the action of the Prophet of Allaah (ﷺ) .

Narrated A’ishah bint Abu Bakr: “The Prophet of Allaah (ﷺ) led us in prayer and performed 4 ruku’ in 2 rak’a during the solar eclipse and the first rak’at was longer (than the second one).”[6]

In conclusion, the action of ‘Ali ibn Abi Taalib cannot be given the ruling of marfu’ but rather, it will be treated as mawqoof.

3. This is an action done by a Companion or narrated by a Companion which occurred during the lifetime of the Prophet of Allaah (Sallallahu ‘alayhi wa salam), but it was not mentioned whether he knew of this action.

Narrated Asma bint Abu Bakr, the wife of Zubayr ibn al-Awam: “We slaughtered a horse by Dhabh (sacrificing) during the lifetime of the Messenger of Allaah (ﷺ), while we were at Al-Madina and we ate it.”[7]

This hadeeth is taken as marfu’al hukman because whenever a munkar (evil) occurred in the lifetime of the Prophet of Allaah (ﷺ), there will always be a revelation sent to him regarding it.

4. This is the stating by a Companion that something is from the Sunnah. Narrated ’Abdullaah ibn Mas’ood: “From the Sunnah is to recite the tashhahood in a soft voice (i.e. quietly)”[8]

However, if a tabi’een (Successor) should say that something is from the Sunnah, then there is ikhtilaaf (differing of ruling) amongst the scholars as to what ruling the narration should take e.g. Narrated Ubaydullaah bin ’Abdullaah bin Mas’ood: “The Sunnah is that the Imaam during the ‘eed makes 2 khutbahs (sermons) separated by 1 sitting.”

So a group of scholars regard this saying as been mawqoof, while another group of scholars hold this narration to be marfu’al hukman.

5. The saying of a Companion stating that they or the people have been ordered to do something or prohibited from doing something.

Narrated Umm ’Atiyah: “We were forbidden from accompanying the funeral processions, but not strictly.”[9]

Narrated Umm ’Atiyah: “We have been ordered to give our jewellery during the time of ’eed.”

Narrated ‘Abdulllaah ibn ‘Abbaas: “The people were commanded to perform the tawaf (circumambulate) of the Ka’bah (Tawaf al Wadaa’) as the last thing before leaving Makkah, except the menstruating women who were exempted.”[10]

Narrated Anas bin Maalik: “A time limit has been prescribed for us for clipping the moustache, cutting the nails, plucking the hair under the armpits and shaving the pubes and it should not be neglected for more than 40 nights.”[11]

6. The judgement of a Companion about an action as to whether it is an act of righteousness or sin.

Narrated Abu Sha’thaa: “ While we were sitting with Abu Hurairah in the mosque, a man went out after the Adhan (call to prayer) had been pronounced. Abu Hurairah’s eyes followed him until he went out of the mosque. Upon this Abu Hurairah said: ‘This man has disobeyed Abu’l Qasim (ﷺ).’”[12]

So the ruling of this hadeeth is that it is marfu’al hukman, for nothing takes the ruling of been sinful or righteous in the religion of Al-Islam except that there is a Shari’ah text in support of it. Therefore, no Companion will state an issue to be an act of righteous or sin except having knowledge of the Shari’ah ruling regarding the issue.

7. The statement of a Companion of which he connected it to the Messenger of Allaah (ﷺ).

Narrated ‘Abdulllaah ibn ‘Abbaas: “Healing is in 3 things; a gulp of honey, cupping and cauterization. But I forbid my followers to use cauterization.”[13]

Sa’eed ibn Jubayr commented on this hadeeth by saying: “’Abdulllaah ibn ‘Abbaas connected this hadeeth to the Prophet of Allaah (ﷺ) with the statement: ‘…But I forbid my followers to use cauterization.’

References: 

[1] Sahih: Recorded by Bukhari

[2] Sahih: Recorded by Bukhari and Muslim

[3] Sahih: Recorded by Muslim

[4] Sahih: Recorded by Muslim

[5] Sahih: Recorded by Bukhari

[6] Sahih: Recorded by Bukhari and Muslim

[7] Sahih: Recorded by Bukhari

[8] Sahih: Sunan Abu Daawood & Al-Haakim

[9] Sahih: Recorded by Bukhari

[10] Sahih: Recorded by Bukhari

[11] Sahih: Recorded by Muslim

[12] Sahih: Recorded by Muslim

[13] Sahih: Recorded by Bukhari

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One thought on “The Science of Hadeeth By Shaykh Saalih al-‘Uthaymeen (Part 15)

  1. Pingback: The Science of Hadeeth By Shaykh Saalih al-‘Uthaymeen (Part 15) | SERAAT-E-MUSTAQEEM

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