‘Fiqh’ (Undertstanding) in the religion by Shaykh Wasiullah Abbas

‘Fiqh’ in the religion by Shaykh Wasiullah Abbas

‘Fiqh’ in the religion, creed, and actions is the complete religion of Islam and all goodness. The Prophet Muhammad said: ‘Whoever Allah wants good for He gives him fiqh (understanding) of the religion, and verily I am a distributor, and Allah gives and bestows what He wills. Also this Muslim nation will continue to remain firm upon their religion, they will not be harmed by those who oppose them, until Allah’s command is given (i.e. the last day).”[1]

The Prophet Muhammad also said: ‘You will find the people of many different backgrounds, the best of them in ‘jahiliyyah’[2] are the best in Islam, if they gain understanding (of the religion).’[3]

‘Fiqh’ is divided into two divisions:
1) Fiqh ul Akbar (The Greater ‘fiqh’): It is related to the affairs of creed and the fundamentals of the religion
2) Fiqh ul Furoo’: It is that which is related to the rulings, legislations, dealings, and business transactions. Perhaps we may call it the (The Lesser ‘fiqh’) and both of these divisions are from the religion of Islam.

Furthermore this type of division(Fiqh ul Akbar and Fiqh ul Furoo) was not known at the time of the companions, and never did they differentiate or make this type of separation between creed and the rulings.

Similarly they never made distinctions as to where these two divisions of ‘fiqh’ were taken from. Certainly they were taken from the Quran and the Sunnah.

One of the prime examples of this is Abu Haneefah’s book regarding creed named ‘Fiqh ul Akbar’. ‘ Fiqh ul Akbar’ is known as knowledge of ‘tawheed’ and creed, it is understanding everything related to Allah, His names and His attributes.

Understanding the affairs of the unseen (from the Quran and Sunnah) and what Allah and His Messenger informed us about these things from the angels and the divine revelations which Allah revealed to His Messengers, as well as believing in all the Messengers who informed us about all of these things. Understanding the events of the Last Day, the good and bad of the pre-decree. Everything related to what Allah and His Messenger informed us about regarding the situations and occurrences of the previous nations. In addition, what is unapparent to us from the affairs of death and what happens to the deceased when one dies and what occurs when one goes to one’s grave, what happens when one is resurrected and awakened from his grave, etc…

It is obligatory upon the Muslim to believe in all of these things, in the way that Allah wants and intends for us to believe in them. We must also believe in all of these things in accordance to the way the companions understood them from the Prophet directly without intermediaries or interceders. Upon this understanding- the religion was completed and Allah’s blessings and favours were bestowed upon the nation of Muhammad . The companions living in the era of the Prophet Muhammad agreed and came together upon these beliefs and ways, and even after the Prophet Muhammad had passed away the people came together and remained steadfast upon what the companions and those who followed them with goodness were upon. Successively, the ‘tabioon’ followed the companions, then the ‘tabi tabi’een’ proceeded them following in their footsteps.

These generations were the best of generations which whom the consensus was concluded. So it is obligatory upon every Muslim to believe and understand the way that those righteous, pious predecessors understood and believed, without negating anything or interpreting falsely, disabling meanings, or asking ‘how’[4]. All Muslims must believe in the Islamic articles of creed without striking similarities between Allah’s attributes and the creation and other than these issues from the affairs of creed and faith.

Furthermore, that which emerged from the innovations of ‘at tashay’u’[5], ‘al-khurooj’, ‘an-nasb’[6], and ‘al qadr’[7] was found only amongst the perverted deviants from the Muslims at the time of the Prophet Muhammad . The scholars of ‘fiqh’ as well as the entire Muslim nation considered them to be deviants and considered them to be in opposition to the Prophet Muhammad. These misguided deviants were renounced, rejected, abandoned and forsaken by all of the companions, scholars and all the Muslims of that time.

In addition, it is not permissible for the Muslims to differ regarding this issue. As indeed the consensus was made by the best people after the Prophet Muhammad (companions). Meaning that if consensus was made in any issue at the time of the companions then it is not permissible to have differences regarding it at any time or in any place. Consequently, Allah the Most High decreed to make apparent some of the misguided groups regarding their false creed which started to emerge throughout the Muslim lands after the era of the first three generations. From these misguided groups: Mu’tazilah, Jahmiyyah, Ash’ariyyah, Maturidiyyah,[8] and these so called ‘intellectual’ groups-as they claim- introduced philosophical terminologies into their beliefs and ‘madthaa’hib’ such as: classifying and dividing things into categories referring to them as being essential and nonessential, certain knowledge and presumptive knowledge, striking similarities between Allah and His creation, denying all similarities from Him while nullifying the meanings of Allah’s attributes, and many other ideas which distorted the image of the pure, unadultered, decisive, authentic Isamic creed.

The creed which even the nomadic bedouins living far out in the desert understood in the time of the Prophet and the companions. The creed in which nothing was found to be ambiguous, problematic or difficult to understand. By right the companions were absolutely the best of generations because of their complete and perfect Islam and their complete faith in Allah the Most High.

Furthermore, the deviant ones named knowledge of ‘tawheed’ as knowledge of ‘kalaam’ (theological rhetoric). Perhaps this was because many of the misguided sects and groups introduced a large amount of theological rhetoric and controversy around this subject in their debates and arguments.[9] All of this was introduced after the time of the companions, who weren’t familiar with anything except listening to the Prophet Muhammad and being obedient to what he ordered them with or prohibited them from.

In addition, as ‘taqleed’[10] in ‘fiqh’ related to rulings and legislations began to spread, similarly the blind following of people also began to spread. The creed of the deviants became predominate over the creed of as-Salafiyyah and the ones who were adhering to the creed of the deviants became boastful and bragged about their creed stating that it was the creed of the majority. As a result of this they made it seem as though ‘the majority’ and large groups of followers was the sign and defining characteristic that showed that they were upon the truth. However based upon what the Prophet Muhammad informed us: “A group from my nation will continue to live by the command of Allah and they will not be harmed by those who oppose them, until the decree of Allah comes while they are still prevailing over the people.”[11]

For this reason the scholars of the Sunnah have taken it upon themselves to refute, disprove, rebut and reject all false ideologies, methodologies and creeds which are in opposition to that of the companions. The scholars of the Sunnah’s numerous invaluable books and compilations have reached the far and distant regions throughout the entire world clarifying the authentic creed of the salaf and refuting the falsehood-May Allah have mercy upon them.

Taken from the shaykhs book – Al ‘I’tibaa’a And The Principles Of Fiqh Of The Righteous

References: 

[1] Saheeh Bukhari 1/217, Book of Knowledge, Chapter: Whoever Allah wants good for, #71 from the hadeeth of Mu’awiyyah ibn Sufyan

[2] (TN)Times of ignorance before the sending of Allah’s Messenger

[3] Saheeh Bukhari 6/652, Book of Manaaqib, Chapter: Allah’s statement (O Mankind….) #3493, from the hadeeth of Abu Hurairah

[4] (TN) asking ‘how’ about Allah’s names and attributes, which is an innovation

[5] (TN) The methodology and beliefs of the ‘Shia’a’ which originated from Abdullah ibn Saba’ and spread during the conflict of Uthmaan ibn Affaan and Ali ibn Abee Talib. Abdullah ibn Saba’ spread false beliefs about Ali which led many people astray and into misguidance.

[6] (TN) al-khurooj: referring to the methodology and beliefs of the ‘Khawarij’, whose origins go back to Dhul Khuwaysirah and those with him from amongst the people who rebelled against Uthmaan ibn Afaan, and also the ones who rebelled against Ali ibn Abee Talib. An-nasb: referring to the ones who showed extreme hatred and disobedience to Ali and his rulings in the time of conflict.

[7] (TN) Referring to those who denied Allah’s decree.

[8] (TN) One of the misguided sects.

[9] (TN) This took place when some of the Muslims started translating Greek books on philosophy, astronomy, mathemetics and other sciences into Arabic, until some of the Muslims became influenced by these ideas which eventually led to them being misguided.

[10] (TN) Acting upon a saying or action from someone whose sayings and actions are not authoritative sources or evidences in the religion

[11] Saheeh Muslim 3/1524, Book of Leadership

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