Fiqh According to the Qur’an & Sunnah By Shaykh Muhammad Subhi bin Hasan Hallaq

Types of Water

Mutlaq Water – this is water free from any addition if one wished, one might say that it what might sufficiently be described as water; this definition was reported from Ash-Shafi in Al-Buwaiti’. It was also said that it is that which remains in its natural state (i.e. unaltered in any way).

Mutlaq water includes:

1) Rainwater, snow and hail:
According the words of Allah, Most High in Surah Anfal (8:11): “And He created rain to descend on you from the sky, to clean you thereby” and His words in Surah Furqan (25:48): “And We send down pure water from the sky.”

And the Hadith of Abu Hurairah in which he said: “The Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi was sallam) used to be silent between the (opening) Takbeer of the prayer and the recitation of the Qur’an. Abu Hurairah said to him: ‘O Messenger of Allah! May my father and mother be sacrificed for you, with regard to your silence between the Takbeer and the recital, what do you say (quietly to yourself during that time)?’ He said: O Allah! Set me apart from my sins (faults) as the East and West are set apart from each other and clean me from sins as a white garment is cleaned of dirt (after thorough washing). O Allah! Wash off my sins with water, snow and hail.)”

Sahih: Recorded in Sahih Bukhari (no. 744), Sahih Muslim (no. 598)

2) Sea and river water:
Based upon the Hadith of Abu Hurairah, who said: “A man asked the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi was sallam): “O Messenger of Allah! We sail on the ocean and we carry only a little water. If we use it for ablution, we will have to go thirsty. May we use sea water for ablution?” The Messenger of Allah said: “Its (i.e. the sea’s) water is pure and its dead (creatures) are lawful (i.e. they can be eaten without the necessity of slaughtering them).”

Sahih: Recorded in Sunan Abi Dawud (1/64, no. 83), Sunan Tirmidhi (1/100, no. 69) who said: “This Hadith is Hasan Sahih”, Sunan Nasa’i (1/50, no.59, no.176, no.332, 7/2007, no.4350), Sunan Ibn Majah (1/136, no. 386), Musnad Ahmad (2/237, 361, 378 and 392), Al-Haakim (1/140) in ‘Uloom Al-Hadith (p. 87), Ad-Daraqutni (1/36, no.13) and others. (Graded Sahih by shaykh albani in) Irwa Al-Ghaleel (no. 9) and Silsilah Al-Ahadith As-Saheehah (no. 480)

Another proof is the evident meaning of the Qur’anic verse in Surah An-Nisa (4:43) which states: “And you find no water, then perform Tayammum” and seawater is a kind of water, so it is not permissible to resort to Tayammum when it is person.Reference: See Al-Mughni by Imam Ibn Qudamah (1/37)

3) Zamzam water:
Based upon the Hadith Ali regarding the description of Hajj performed by the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi was sallam) in which he said: “Then he departed and he called for a Sajil of Zamzam water, and he drank from it, then made ablution (with its water) ad said: “Draw water, O Banu Abdil Muttalib! Were it not that you would be overcome, I would have drawn it along with you.”

Hasan: Recorded by Abdullah ibn Al-Imam Ahmad in Zawa’id Al-Musnad (1/76) with a good chain of narrators and its meaning is found in the Saheehan (i.e. Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim). Imam Ash-Shawkani said in Nail Al-Awtaar (1/108): “The chain of this hadith is Sahih” and Shaykh albani declared the hadith to be Hasan in Irwa Al-Ghaleel (no. 13)

A Sajil is a bucket filled with water and its plural is Sijal.

Reference: See An-Nihayah (2/343-344)

And his saying: “Were it not that you would be overcome “ means: “Were it not for my fear that the people would think that this is one of the rites of Hajj, and rush to do it, and thus usurp this right of supplying water from you, I would have drawn the water with you, because of the great virtue entailed I drawing water for the pilgrim.”

Reference: See: Al-Fath Ar-Rabbani (1/203)

(Next part coming soon InshaaAllah)

Taken from the book Fiqh According to the Qur’an & Sunnah By Shaykh Muhammad Subhi bin Hasan Hallaq


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