Durur-ul Bahiyah fi Masaa’il Fiqhiyyah by Imam Shawkani
Chapter: The Prayer of Two Eid
It is two rak’ah: In the first rak’ah (there should be) seven takbeerat before the recitation (of Surah Fatihah): In the second rak’ah, (there should be) five takbeerat before the recitation as well.
Speech is delivered after prayer.
It is recommended in the Eid prayer to:
- Adorn oneself and be welldressed
- Offer prayer outside one’s city, town, or village (i.e. at or beyond the outskirts of one’sarea).
- To take another path (whenreturning).
- To eat before leaving home to prayer in Eid Al-Fitr but not in EidAl-Adha.
- Its time starts after the sun rises to an altitude of a spear until the
- There is no Adhan (call to prayer) Iqaamah (call to stand for prayer) in
Chapter 1: On Al-Khula’ (Separation of a couple with compensation for husband)
Al-Khula is when the husband parts with his wife at her discretion. In this case she does not return to him via mere retrieval. Parting is permissible regardless of the amount of compensation as long as the amount does not exceed the original jointure. Consent is obligatory between the two over the parting. However, it can be undertaken by the ruler parting between them and it is a Faskh (i.e. a cancellation of marriage). The period of this separation is one menstruation.
Book of Divorce
It is permissible for one who is liable to the obligations of Islam and is free to act voluntary even if divorce was due to mere jest.
It is permissible to divorce in the case of woman who is in the state of purity wherein her husband did not have sexual intercourse with her. It is unlawful to divorce her in the period (of menses), but he is allowed to do so during pregnancy. However, it is forbidden to undertake divorce in a manner other than the prescribed above.
Chapter 3: The rules of dowry and relations with wives
Paying a dowry is obligatory but it is disliked to exaggerate its amount. It is valid and acceptable if the dowry is only a ring of iron or teaching the Qur’an.
One who marries a woman without mentioning the amount of dowry should give her a dowry equal to a dowry that had been paid to any of her female relatives if he co-habits with her. It is recommended to give some of the dowry before intercourse with the wife. The husband’s relation with his wife must be good and mannerly. The wife must show obedience and servitude.
It is also forbidden to betroth upon another’s betrothal. It is permissible to look at the betrothed woman. No marriage is valid without a guardian and two witnesses unless the guardian is intending to prevent the woman from marriage or is non-Muslim. It is permissible for each husband and wife to authorize someone to contract the marriage even if it were one.
The Book of Marriage
Marriage is legitimate and advisable for one who is able to marry.
It is obligatory upon one fears committing a sin.
Tabatual (celibacy) (i.e. to abstain from marriage so as to devote oneself to worship) is not permissible unless one is not able to shoulder the obligations of marriage.
Ad-Durur Al-Bahiyah fi Masaa’il Al-Fiqhiyyah (The Crystalline Gems Of Islamic Jurisprudence) by Imam Shawkani (Kitab As-Salah Translated: Ch 1 – Ch 2 Fully referenced with the ahadith)
The Book of Prayer
Chapter 1: The Times of Prayer
The time of the Noon (Dhuhr) prayer starts once the sun passes the meridian. Except for the shade of postmeridian time. The period Noon prayer ends when anything and its shadow are equal in length. This timing indicates the beginning of the evening (Asr) prayer. It is the time of the afternoon prayer as long as the sun is white and clear. The start of sunset (Maghrib) prayer time is sunset. The end of it is the disappearance of the twilight. This in turn indicates the start of the night (Isha) prayer, and its end is midnight.
The beginning of dawn (Fajr) prayer time is when the dawn breaks. It ends at sunrise.
Whoever missies a prayer due to sleep or forgetfulness makes it up upon waking or remembering. As for one who had an excuse and was able to pray a rak’ah (a unit of prayer) then he has offered such prayer with the group. Timing is obligatory.