Types Of Narrations According To A Particular Authority
This type of narration is divided into 3 categories;
- Marfu’ (Elevated):
This is a narration which is connected to the Messenger of Allaah (ﷺ). It is of 2 types;
- Marfu’al Sarihan (Directly Elevated):- This is a narration which is directly related to the Prophet of Allaah (ﷺ) concerning his sayings, actions, tacit approvals and descriptions of his manners and features.
Examples of Marfu’al Sareehan:
Al-Wadi’oon (The Forgers/Fabricators)
- Az-Zanaadiqah (Heretics): These are those people who wish to corrupt the ‘Aqeedah (Belief/Creed) of the Muslims, distort the rulings of the Shari’a (Divine Law) and change the picture of al-Islam, by inventing false and fabricated ahadeeth. below are some examples of the zanaadiqah;
- Muhammad ibn Sa’eed al-Masloob who was killed by the abbasid Caliph, Aboo Ja’far al-Mansoor (d.158H) Rahimahullaah. Al-Masloob invented the hadeeth below;
Al–Mawdu’al Hadeeth (Fabrication Of Hadeeth)
Definition: This is a narration where the narrator falsely attributes it to the Messenger of Allaah (‘Alahyi sallatu wa salam) as been his words i.e. intentionally lying upon The Prophet of Allaah (Sallallahu ‘alayhi wa salam).
The Ruling: The fabricated hadeeth is completely rejected nor is it permissible to mention it, except that it is stated that the hadeeth is mawdoo’ (fabricated) and this is in order to warn the people from believing in it and/or acting upon it.
Riwaayatil Hadeeth Bil Mu’anaa (The Quotation Of A Narration By Its Meaning)
Definition: This is where a narrator/muhahdith quotes a hadeeth with a text that is different to that which has been narrated from the Prophet of Allaah (Sallallahu ‘alayhi wa salam).
The Ruling: Ar-riwaayah (the quotation) of a hadeeth by its meaning is not accepted unless it achieves the following criteria;
Az – Zi‘Adati Feel Hadeeth (Addition In The Narration)
Definition: This is where a narrator/muhadith adds a word/phrase/sentence to the text of a hadeeth, with the understanding that these words are part of the statement spoken by the Messenger of Allaah (‘Alahyi sallatu wa salam). Thus, az-Zi‘adah is more general than al-Idraj.
Al-Idraj Feel Matn (Interpolation In The Text Of A Narration)
Definition: This is where a narrator or Muhaddith inserts into the text of a hadeeth a statement from himself, not intending for his words to be taken as part of the hadeeth. An insertion into the text of a hadeeth usually occurs as a result of a narrator explaining a particular word in the hadeeth, extracting a ruling or bringing forth a benefit from the hadeeth.
Definition: This is where there is a difference amongst the Muhadeetheen either in the text or chain of the hadeeth and there is difficulty in reconciling the various opinions or determining which one is the strongest.
An example of idtirab in the chain: Narrated Abu Bakr: “O Messenger of Allaah (ﷺ)! I see you getting older?” The Prophet of Allaah (ﷺ) replied: “What made me old are Soorah Hud and it’s sister Soorahs.”